comparison between two different items that an author may use to describe, define, explain, etc. by indicating their similarities. Ex: "The asphalt softened, the lawns grew spidery brown, and the dogs crept like shadows."
two opposing ideas presented in a parallel manner. Ex: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times..."
usually found in poetry; writer speaks directly to an abstract person, idea, or ideal and is used to exhibit strong emotions. Ex: "Be with me Beauty, for the fire is dying."
adjective or adjective phrase that an author uses to describe the perceived nature of a noun by accentuating one of its dominant characteristics, whether real or metaphysical. Ex: "grey-eyed Athena"
a metaphor in which the actual subject is represented by an item with which it is closely related. Ex: "Today, the White House issued a statement congratulating Congress on its passage of the new energy bill."
a metaphor that uses a part to represent the whole. Ex: "I just got a new set of wheels."
writer uses grammatically similar constructions to create a sense of balance that allows the audience to compare and contrast the parallel subjects. Ex: "For the end of a theoretical science is truth, but the end of a practical science is performance."
construction (word, phrase, another sentence) that is placed as an unexpected aside in the middle of the rest of the sentence. Ex: "His guitar (he always thought of it as his right arm) was missing again."
a question that a writer poses to the audience in which he/she does not expect an answer. Ex: "Got milk?"
a writer uses this to minimize the obvious importance or seriousness of someone or something, assuming the audience knows the significance. Ex: "After a fireman saves a family, he says, 'Just doing my job.'"
used for emphasis or affirmation and asserts a point by denying the opposite. Ex: "Tornadoes are not unheard of in Nebraska during the summer." (when in fact they occur frequently)