"The messenger of God". An Arab merchant who began to preach a message of religious renewal to the people of the Arabian Peninsula in the early 1600s.
One of the most important shrines in Mecca, visited by many people.
Muhammad's journey with his followers from Mecca to Yathrib.
Holy book of Islam containing revelations received by Muhammad from God.
Followers of the Sunna.
Ali's supporters. They believed that Ali's descendants were especially blessed by God because they were the true heirs of Muhammad.
Pilgrimage. One of the five pillars of Islam.
Holy war or constant inner struggle for faith.
An instrument invented by the Greeks that allowed the observer to chart the position of the stars and thereby calculate their own position on Earth.