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Joseph's flashcards for Mrs. Johnson's colonies test

Interdependence

Depending on each other

Colony

A geographical area which is politically controlled by a distant colony

Separatists

Some Puritans of the 16th and 17th centuries that preferred to separate from the Church of England rather than reform (the Pilgrims who came on the Mayflower and settled Plymouth were Separatists)

Religious Persecution

An organized and planned mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious beliefs

Puritans

English Protestants who wanted to purify the Church of England; followed strict religious principles

Quakers

A Christian group founded in England in the mid-17th century; real name was "The Society of Friends" (English settlers who established a colony in PA were Quakers; opposed war on religious grounds)

Debtor

An individual who owes a business money; a person who purchased products and/or services from a business and has not paid for it at the end of a specific period

Moderate

Average; not too much; not extreme

County

A local government smaller than a state government; counties are divided into cities, towns, and townships (the word county is used in 48 of the 50 US states)

Interference

Something which delays action, makes progress difficult, obstructs, holds back or causes problems

Reformer

One who wants to make better, improve, or correct something that is corrupt or bad

Naval Supplies

Products such as turpentine (sticky liquid) and pitch or rosin (hardened sap) that come from pine trees and are used in the construction and maintenance of wooden sailing vessel

Craftsmen

A skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

Livestock

Farm animals, such as beef cattle, dairy cows, horses, sheep, hogs, chickens, and turkeys, raised on a farm for home use or profit

Unskilled Worker

A worker who uses his/her hands with a job that requires no special training to perform simple duties that may be learn in a few days; examples include miners and ironworkers

Skilled Worker

A worker having or using special or learned skills in his/her job; examples include blacksmiths, carpenters, and silversmiths

Diverse

Different, varied, unlike

Market Town

Where goods are services are bought and sold in an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city

Humid

Moist or damp

Plantation

A large farm especially in the South, on which cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, indigo, and rice are grown; includes a large house (mansion); laborers do the work

Cash Crop

A crop such as cotton, tobacco, indigo, or rice, that is grown specifically to sell for money

Mansion

A large house

Indentured Servant

A worker who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America

Predominantly

Most common; to be superior in power or number

Labor

Physical work

Contract

An agreement between or more persons that is enforceable by law

Impose

Enforce; to behave in a certain way

Raw Materials

A product that is purchased in its raw state for the purpose of processing it into a consumer or industrial good; examples include iron ore, crude oil, copper, timber, wheat, and leather

Political

Having to do with government or the process by which people make decisions

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Location: Massachusetts; Settled by: Puritans; Reason: to avoid religious persecution; Important People: none

Roanoke Colony

Location: Off the coast of NC; Settled by: English settlers; Reason: economic venture $$; Important People: John White, Sir Walter Raleigh... "The Lost Colony"

Jamestown Colony

Location: Southern VA; Settled by: English settlers; Reason: economic venture $$; Important People: John Smith, Powhatan

Plymouth Colony

Location: Massachusetts; Settled by: Separatists; Reason: To avoid religious persecution; Important People: Miles Standish

Pennsylvania Colony

Location: Mid-Atlantic States; Settled by: Quakers; Reason: Religious freedom; Important People: William Penn

Georgia Colony

Location: South; Settled by: Debtors; Reason: Economic freedom; Important People: James Oglethorpe

New England Colonies

Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut

New England Colonies Geography and Climate

Jagged coast line, rocky soil, very cold winters, hilly terrain, moderate summers, Appalachian Mountains, Boston Harbor

New England Colonies Natural and Human Resources

Natural: Fish, timber, harbors; Human: fisherman, ship builders, shop keepers

New England Colonies Specialization

Fishing, ship building, naval supplies, industry

New England Colonies Social Life

Villages and churches; religious reformers

Mid-Atlantic Colonies

Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware

Mid-Atlantic Colonies Geography and Climate

Appalachian Mountains, coastal lowlands, moderate climate and mild winters (?), harbors, bays, deep and wide rivers

MId-Atlantic Colonies Natural and Human Resources

Natural: Rivers and rich farmland; Human: skilled workers, unskilled workers, fisherman, (farmers?)

Mid-Atlantic Colonies Specialization

Fish, grain, livestock

Mid-Atlantic Social Life

Different lifestyles; different religions

Southern Colonies

Georgia, NC, SC, VA, MD

Southern Colonies Geography and Climate

Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors, good rivers

Southern Colonies Natural and Human Resources

Natural: fertile land, rivers, harbors Human: farmers, slaves

Southern Colonies Specialization

Tobacco, cotton, indigo, wood products

Southern Colonies Social Life

Plantations (slavery), mansions (plantation house), indentured servants, few cities, few schools

New England Interdependence

South: tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice, wood products, tar, pitch; Mid-Atlantic: livestock, grain

Mid-Atlantic Interdependence

New England: tools and equipment; South: tools and equipment

Southern Interdependence

New England: manufactored goods, tools and equipment

Women

Worked as caretakers, houseworkers, homemakers, wives and mothers, farmworkers, no vote, little say in their lives - controlled by men (fathers, husbands, brothers, sons), usually not educated

Indentured servants traits

Little freedom while indentured, but eventually freed

Slaves

Captured in Africa, sold to slave traders, shipped to colonies, sold into slavery, considered property, no rights

Large plantation owners

Lived mostly in the south, relied on indentured servants and slaves to make their fortunes, many were educated, rich social life with money, parties, balls, dinners

Free African Americans

Can own land; had economic freedom; spend money freely; can`t vote

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