Chapter 4, Earths Structure and Motion

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This set is designed to help the students practice the Chapter 4 vocabulary terms.

oblate spheroid

The shape of the Earth, which is a sphere that bulges in the center.

inner core

The Earth's center, which is composed of solid iron and nickel.

outer core

The layer of liquid iron and nickel that is directly above the inner core.

mantle

The thickest of Earth's layers, which is directly above the outer core. It is composed mostly of compounds rich in iron, silicon, and magnesium.

lithosphere

The crust and the uppermost portion of the mantle.

asthenosphere

A thin, slush like layer of the mantle that the more rigid material of the lithosphere floats upon.

magnetic field

The lines of magnetic force that surround the Earth and protect it from the sun's deadly solar wind.

rotation

The spinning of the Earth on its axis.

Foucault pendulum

An iron sphere on a very long wire, that gives evidence that the Earth rotates on its axis.

Coriolis effect

The apparent deflection of the winds caused by the spinning of the
Earth on its axis.

time meridian

Each standard time zone which is roughly centered on a line of longitude exactly divisible by 15º.

prime meridian

An arbitrary longitude line which is the starting point for the standard time zones.

International Date Line

An imaginary line that represents the longitude at which the date changes.

revolution

The movement of the Earth in its orbit around the sun.

parallax

The apparent shift in positions of nearby stars compared to distant stars. This is evidence of the Earth's revolution around the sun.

summer solstice

The day in which we have maximum daylight. In the Northern Hemisphere this happens around June 21.

winter solstice

The day in which we have the least amount of daylight. In the Northern Hemisphere this happens around December 21.

vernal equinox

The day in March when there are 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night.

autumnal equinox

The day in September when there are 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night.

perihelion

The point in the Earth's orbit in which the Earth is closest to the Sun.

aphelion

The point in the Earth's orbit in which the Earth is farthest from the Sun.

Arctic Circle

The latitude line that is 23.5º below the North Pole. Areas above this line have 24 hours of darkness on Dec. 21st

Antarctic Circle

The latitude line that is 23.5º above the South Pole. Areas below this line have 24 hours of darkness on June 21st

Tropic of Cancer

The latitude line that is 23.5º above the equator. Areas on this line have the sun directly overhead on June 21st.

Tropic of Capricorn

The latitude line that is 23.5º below the equator. Areas on this line have the sun directly overhead on Dec 21st.

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