Science Final Exam Review

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A liquid mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration is a...

suspension

How is a solute different from a solvent in a solution?

The solute is present in a smaller amount

Weak tea is an example of a...

dilute solution

When you add so much solute that no more dissolves, you have a...

saturated solution

What is one way to increase the solubility of sugar in water?

heat the water

What is a characteristic property of acids?

They turn blue litmus paper red

Acids are described as corrosive because they...

"eat away" at other materials

Which is a likely use for a base?

making soups and detergents

In a water solution, how do acids differ from bases?

Acids from hydrogen ions (H*),while bases from hydroxide ions (OH-)

In water, bases form...

hydroxide ions

The pH scale measures...

the concentration of hydrogen ions

Neutralization is a reaction between a(n)...

acid and a base

What does a neutralization reaction produce?

water and a salt

Normal rainfall is slightly acidic, which means its pH must be...

between 5 and 7

When a solid compound dissolves in water...

each of its particles becomes surrounded by water molecules

A measure of how well a solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature is that substance's...

solubility

Acids naturally present in food are safe to eat because they usually are...

weak

You can find the pH of a substance by using...

litmus indicator

What happens when two forces act int eh same direction?

they add together

The tendency of an object to resist change in its motion is known as...

inertia

The greater the mass of an object...

the greater the inertia

The force of gravity on a person or object on the surface of a planet is called...

weight

The force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other is called...

friction

When of the following is an example of rolling friction?

bike tires on the road as you ride

When the only forace acting on a falling object is gravity, the object is said to be...

in free fall

Air resistance is a type of...

friction

The froce of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet is known as...

friction

The force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet is known as...

weight

Forces can be added together only if they are...

acting on the same object

The product of an object's mass and velocity is called its...

momentum

The achievement of lifting a rocket off the ground and into space can be explained by...

Newton's third law

What is required for a rocket to lift off into space?

thrust that is greater then Earth's gravity

In physical science, a push or a pull is called a(n)...

force

The momentum of an object is in the same direction as its...

velocity

How can you increase the momentum of an object..

by increasing its mass

The amount of matter in an object is called its

mass

Whch of the following is an example of increasing friction intentionally?

throwing sand on an icy driveway

The force that pulls faling objects toward Earth is called...

gravity

Objects falling through air experience a type of friction called...

air resistance

According to Newton's thrid law of motion, when a hammer strikes and exerrts force on a nail, the nail...

exerts an equal force back on the hammer

The SI unit for force is the...

newton

When an objects's distance from another object is changing...

it is in motion

The basic SI unit of length is the...

meter

Speed equals distance divided by...

time

When you know both the speed and direction of an object's motion, you know the...

velocity of the object

You can show the motion of an object on a line graph in which you plot distance against...

time

The steepness of a line on a graph is called the...

rise

The reate at whch velocity changes is called...

acceleration

To determine the acceleration rate of an object, you must calculate the change in speed during each unit of...

time

If speed is measured in kilometers per hour and time is measured in hours, the unit of acceleration is...

kilometers per hour per hour

Average speed is...

the total distance traveled divided by the total time

On a graph showing distance vs. time, a horizontal line represents an object tha is...

not moving at all

The Internation System of Units is used...

all over the world

If you know the distance an object has traveled in a certain amount of time, you can determine...

the speed of the object

It is rare from any motion to...

stay the same for very long

If the speed of an object does NOT change, the object is traveling at a...

constant speed

Changing direction is an example of a kind of...

acceleration

If a bicyclist travels 30 kilometers in two hours, her average speed is...

15 km/h

If an object moves in the same direction and at a constant speed for 4 hours, whch of the following is true?

the objects velocity did not change

If you know a car traveled 300 kilometers in 3 hours, you can find its...

average speed

In an acceleration graph showing speed vs. time, a straight line shows the acceleration is...

constant

For work to be done on an object...

the object must move some distance as a result of a force

Which of these is an example of work being done on an object...

pushing a child on a swing

If you exert a force of 20 newtons to push a desk 10 metersm how much work do you do on the desk?

200 joules

Work is meausured in...

joules

What do machines do?

change the amount of force you exert or the distnace over whch you exert the force

Pulling down a rope to hoist a sail on a sailboat is an example of a machine...

changing the direction over whch a force is exerted

Without friction there would be...

equal input and output work

An ideal machine would have an efficiency of...

100%

A ramp is an example of a simple machine called a(n)...

inclined plane

The ideal mechanical advantage for an inclined plane is equal to the length of the incline divided by the...

height of the incline

Which of these is an example of a third-class lever?

fishing pole

The ideal mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle is equal to the...

radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle

A machine that utilizes two or more simple machines is called a...

compound machine

One example of a compound machine is a...

bicycle

Which boy parts act as the fulcrums of levers?

joints

Whch body parts are shaped like wedges?

incisors

A simple machine that might be thought of as an inclined plane that moves is a...

wedge

Which of these could be considered an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder?

screw

The fixed point that a lever pivots around is called the...

fulcrum

In order to do work on an object, the force that you exert must be...

in the same direction as the object's motion

Work equals force times..

distance

When you raise or lower a flag on a flagpole, you are using a(n)...

pulley

How can a hockey stick be considered a machine?

it multiplies distance

The mechanical advantage of a machine that change only the direction of force is...

1

Most of hte machine in your body consist of bones and muscles and are called...

levers

If tight scissors have an efficiency of 50%, half you work is wasted due to...

fricition

The power of a light bulb that converts electrical energy at a rate of 100 joules per second is...

100 watts

Power is measured in units called...

watts

The wedge, screw, and lever are all...

simple machines

Everyday we are surrounded by radiation called ____________ radiation.

background

Gamma radiation is represented by the symbol...

Y

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called its _________.

atomic number

Nuclear pwoer plants make use of the nuclear process called __________.

fission

The symbols a or He are used to represent ____ radiation...

alpha

The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called its...

mass number

The process in which serveral small nuclei combine to make a larger nucleus is called...

fusion

The symbol B is used to represent ________ radiation.

beta

The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the itme it takes for _____ of the radiation in a sample to disappear.

all

The nucleus of the atom is split during nuclear ________.

fission

The nucleus of an atom that releases radiation of any kind is said to be ______.

combustable

A beta particle is simply a high speed _____ ejected from the nucleus.

electron

Whch form of nuclear radiation is not a partilce?

gamma

A solute is a mixture which partilces can be seen and easily separated

False

A substance that is present in a solution in a smaller amount and is dissolved by the solvent is called the solute.

True

Amoung the factors that affect the solubility of a substance are type of solvent, pressure,and time.

False

Because solubility is a characterisitic property of matter, it can be used to help identify a substance.

True

Bases feel slippery and taste sour.

False

Bases form hydrogen ions (H*) when dissolved in water.

False

The particles in suspension are larger than the particles in a solution but are still too small to be seen easily.

False

The products of a neutralization raction are acids and bases.

False

Unbalanced forces do not change an object's motion.

False

The property of matter that resists a change in motion is called inertia.

True

According to Newton's second law of motion, weight depends on an object's mass and the net force acting on the object.

False

Friction depends on the types of surfaces involved and how hard the surfaces push together.

True

Mass and air resistance affect the gravitational attration between objects.

False

When the only force acting on a falling object is air resistance, the object is said to be in free fall.

False

Newton's thrid law of motion states that for every action there is an equal but oppostie unbalanced force.

False

A unit of momentum is kg x m/s.

True

A rocket will move upward as long as the thrust is greater then the force of gravity.

True

The force that keeps a satellite in Earth's orbit is always directed away from the center of Earth.

True

Motion is meaured relative to a reference point.

True

Average speed is the rate at which an object is moving at a given instant

False

A meter is a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion.

False

If a toy car traveling at 10 cm/s passes a toy car moving at 10 cm/s in the opposite direction, both cars have the same velocity.

False

A straight diagonal line on a distance versus time graph indicates constant speed.

True

A horizontal line on a distance versus time graph means tha tthe object is at rest.

True

A child riding a merry-go-round is accelerating because his direction is changing.

True

The SI unit of velocity is the meter per second per second.

False

A straight line of a graph of speed versus time means that he object has a constant acceleration.

True

Holding a 25-N bag of sugar 1 meter from the floor requires 25 joules of work.

False

The forece exerted by a machine is called the output force.

True

The mechanical advantage of a machine that changes only the direction of a force is 1.

True

Efficiency compares the output work to the output force.

False

A wheel and axle is a compound machine.

False

A second-class lever always multiplies distance.

False

The ideal mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle is the radius of the wheel times the radius of the axle.

False

When you raise your leg, the knee acts as a fulcrum for the upper leg.

False

You do work on an object when you lift it from the floor to the shelf.

True

Energy is the rate at which work is done.

False

Use the pH scale to compare an apple and a lemon.

Lemons have a pH of about 2 and apples have a ph of about 3. A lemon is more acidic.

In terms of pH, explain what would happen if you mixed vinegar with a solution of ammonia?

Vinegar is an acid and ammonia is a base, so neutralization would occur.

What does the pH of drain cleaner tell you about the dangers of such a product?

a high pH means that drain cleaner is very acidic.

Why would you expect soap to taste bitter?

Soap is a bease,and bases taste bitter.

What two variable are plotted in the graph?

distance and time

How would you describe Kathy's motion? What does such motion mean?

Kathy is jogging at a constant speed. Her speed doesn't change as she moves.

How far did Kathy jog int he first four minutes?

600 meters

What is Kathy's average speed?

150 m/minute

How long after Kathy started jogging did Rachel begin jogging?

2 minutes

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