Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea.
The ancient region lying between the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and the Mediterranean: the land promised by God to Abraham.
The first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit. The whole body of the Jewish sacred writings and tradition including the oral tradition
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command. The first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac
Belief in a single God.
An agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return.
The Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus.
An ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea; Jerusalem
The fourth son of Jacob who was forebear of one of the tribes of Israel; an ancient kingdom of southern Palestine with Jerusalem as its center.
Money or goods paid from one kingdom to another to keep them from invading.
The second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses.
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
Kingdom of Israel
The name of the northern kingdom that split with Judah after the death of Solomon. This revolt involved people and territory from ten of the twelve tribes.
The dispersion of the Jews outside Israel.
A teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth. A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God and the Christ.
An important early teacher of Christianity or a Christian missionary to a people. One of the 12 closest followers of Jesus, chosen by him to help him teach.
One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, bishop of Rome. disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles. A.D. 5-67
One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish Law; use of Greek as language of the Church. A Christian missionary to the Gentiles.
High-ranking church official with authority over a local area, or diocese. A clergyman having spiritual and administrative authority.
The head of the Roman Catholic Church.
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity.
The crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine. An opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred.
Edict of Milan
Issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire.
A religious body or creed officially endorsed by one's state.
A political system in which the power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them in the government.
Hereditary aristocracy or ruling class of ancient Rome.
Belonging to the lower class, a common person.
Struggle of the Orders
A great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.
The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians in about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law.
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
Two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and were supreme judges.
An assembly possessing high legislative powers originally made up only of aristocrats.
A large military unit.
Three wars waged by Rome against Carthage, 264-241, 218-201, and 149-146 b.c., resulting in the destruction of Carthage and the annexation of its territory by Rome.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
A ruler who has unlimited power and controls all aspects of society.
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.