The Hundred Years' War and the Plague

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pope boniface viii

in 1300, ____ ________ ___ attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had. when king philip iv of france asserted his authority over french bishops, ____ ________ ___ responded with an official document. it stated that kings must obey popes

prisoner

instead of obeying the pope, philip iv had him held ________ in september 1303. the king planned to bring him to france for trial.

monarchs

never again would a pope be able to force _________ to obey him

college of cardinals

in 1305, philip iv persuaded the _______ __ _________ to choose a french archbishop as the new pope.

pope clement v

this newly selected pope moved from rome to avignon in france.

avignon

popes lived in ______ for 69 years

weakened

the move to avignon badly _________ the church

rome

when reformers tried to move the papacy back to ____, the results were even worse.

pope gregory xi

in 1378, ____ _______ __ died while visiting rome. the college of cardinals then met in rome to choose a successor. they chose pope urban vi

pope urban vi

successor to pope gregory xi, his passion for reform and his arrogant personality caused the cardinals to elect a second pope a few months later

pope clement vii

pope who ruled alongside urban vi. also known as robert geneva. spoke french

great schism

the french pope lived in avignon and the italian pope lived in rome. after they both excommunicated each other, the split in the church known as the _____ ______ happened.

council of constance

in 1414, the _______ __ ________ attempted to end the great schism by choosing a single pope. they forced all 3 of the current popes to resign.

martin v

in 1417, the council chose this new pope, ending the great schism but weakening the papacy

john wycliffe

preached that jesus christ, not the pope, was the true head of the church. he was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. he believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. also taught that the bible alone-not the pope-was the final authority for christian life.

jan hus

professor in bohemia, taught that the authority of the bible was higher than that of the pope. he was excommunicated in 1412 and burned at the stake in 1415

bubonic plague

approximately 1/3 of the european population died of the deadly disease known as the _______ ______

giovanni boccaccio

italian writer who described the effect of the plague

asia

the plague began in _____

black death

another name for the plague

sicily

in 1347, a fleet of genoese merchant ships arrived in ______ carrying the bubonic plague.

4

the bubonic plague took about _ years to reach all corners of europe. some communities escaped unharmed, but in others, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of those who caught it died

25 million

total people killed by the plague

fell

town populations ____ (plague effect)

declined

trade ________. prices rose (plague effect)

serfs

_____ left the manor in search of better wages (plague effect)

jews

____ were blamed for bringing on the plague. they were driven from their homes or massacred. (plague effect)

prestige

the church suffered a loss of ________ (plague effect)

century

england and france battled with each other on french soil for just over a _______

society

the century of war between england and france marked the end of medieval europe's ________

edward iii

claimed the right to the french throne when the last capetian king died without a successor

hundred years war

1337-1453, launched by edward iii, victory passed back and forth between the 2 countries involved. Finally, the french rallied and drove out the english from every city except calais

warfare

the hundred years war brought a change in the style of ________ in europe

longbow

the english introduced the _______ and demonstrated its power in 3 significant battles: crecy, poitiers, and agincourt

battle of crecy

the english army was outnumbered by a french army 3x its size. the french army included knights and archers with crossbows. but the english longbowmen dominated and won the battle.

knight

the mounted, heavily armored medieval ______ was soon to become extinct

battle of poitiers

10 years after the battle of crecy, another english victory

battle of agincourt

1415, the third english victory

henry v

in 1420, france and england signed a treaty stating that ______ _ would inherit the french crown upon death of charles vi.

joan of arc

in 1429, a teenage french peasant girl named ____ __ ___ felt moved by god to rescue france from its english conquerors. she wanted to give the french crown to france's true king, charles vii

orleans

in 1429, joan led the french into battle at a fort city near _______. the fort blocked the road to _______. the french retreated in despair and the siege of _______ was complete

reims

charles vii was crowned king here on july 17, 1429.

burgundians

joan was captured by the ___________ in 1429. they turned her over to the english. charles vii did nothing to help her. joan was burned at the stake

nationalism

a feeling of ___________ emerged in england and france. now, instead of fighting for a feudal lord, people fought for their country.

french monarch

the power and prestige of the ______ ________ increased

war of the roses

a period of internal turmoil in england in which 2 noble houses fought for the throne.

middle ages

the end of the hundred years war is considered the end of the ______ ____

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