pope boniface viii
in 1300, ____ ________ ___ attempted to enforce papal authority on kings as previous popes had. when king philip iv of france asserted his authority over french bishops, ____ ________ ___ responded with an official document. it stated that kings must obey popes
instead of obeying the pope, philip iv had him held ________ in september 1303. the king planned to bring him to france for trial.
never again would a pope be able to force _________ to obey him
college of cardinals
in 1305, philip iv persuaded the _______ __ _________ to choose a french archbishop as the new pope.
pope clement v
this newly selected pope moved from rome to avignon in france.
popes lived in ______ for 69 years
the move to avignon badly _________ the church
when reformers tried to move the papacy back to ____, the results were even worse.
pope gregory xi
in 1378, ____ _______ __ died while visiting rome. the college of cardinals then met in rome to choose a successor. they chose pope urban vi
pope urban vi
successor to pope gregory xi, his passion for reform and his arrogant personality caused the cardinals to elect a second pope a few months later
pope clement vii
pope who ruled alongside urban vi. also known as robert geneva. spoke french
the french pope lived in avignon and the italian pope lived in rome. after they both excommunicated each other, the split in the church known as the _____ ______ happened.
council of constance
in 1414, the _______ __ ________ attempted to end the great schism by choosing a single pope. they forced all 3 of the current popes to resign.
in 1417, the council chose this new pope, ending the great schism but weakening the papacy
preached that jesus christ, not the pope, was the true head of the church. he was much offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. he believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. also taught that the bible alone-not the pope-was the final authority for christian life.
professor in bohemia, taught that the authority of the bible was higher than that of the pope. he was excommunicated in 1412 and burned at the stake in 1415
approximately 1/3 of the european population died of the deadly disease known as the _______ ______
italian writer who described the effect of the plague
the plague began in _____
another name for the plague
in 1347, a fleet of genoese merchant ships arrived in ______ carrying the bubonic plague.
the bubonic plague took about _ years to reach all corners of europe. some communities escaped unharmed, but in others, approximately 2/3 to 3/4 of those who caught it died
total people killed by the plague
town populations ____ (plague effect)
trade ________. prices rose (plague effect)
_____ left the manor in search of better wages (plague effect)
____ were blamed for bringing on the plague. they were driven from their homes or massacred. (plague effect)
the church suffered a loss of ________ (plague effect)
england and france battled with each other on french soil for just over a _______
the century of war between england and france marked the end of medieval europe's ________
claimed the right to the french throne when the last capetian king died without a successor
hundred years war
1337-1453, launched by edward iii, victory passed back and forth between the 2 countries involved. Finally, the french rallied and drove out the english from every city except calais
the hundred years war brought a change in the style of ________ in europe
the english introduced the _______ and demonstrated its power in 3 significant battles: crecy, poitiers, and agincourt
battle of crecy
the english army was outnumbered by a french army 3x its size. the french army included knights and archers with crossbows. but the english longbowmen dominated and won the battle.
the mounted, heavily armored medieval ______ was soon to become extinct
battle of poitiers
10 years after the battle of crecy, another english victory
battle of agincourt
1415, the third english victory
in 1420, france and england signed a treaty stating that ______ _ would inherit the french crown upon death of charles vi.
joan of arc
in 1429, a teenage french peasant girl named ____ __ ___ felt moved by god to rescue france from its english conquerors. she wanted to give the french crown to france's true king, charles vii
in 1429, joan led the french into battle at a fort city near _______. the fort blocked the road to _______. the french retreated in despair and the siege of _______ was complete
charles vii was crowned king here on july 17, 1429.
joan was captured by the ___________ in 1429. they turned her over to the english. charles vii did nothing to help her. joan was burned at the stake
a feeling of ___________ emerged in england and france. now, instead of fighting for a feudal lord, people fought for their country.
the power and prestige of the ______ ________ increased
war of the roses
a period of internal turmoil in england in which 2 noble houses fought for the throne.
the end of the hundred years war is considered the end of the ______ ____