AP BIO ch.9~10

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42 terms

fermenation

partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen

redox reactions

chemical reactions involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction

oxydation

the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reation

Glycolysis

splitting of glucose into pyruvate. is one of the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting pt for fermenation or aerobic respiration

oxidative phosphorylation

the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain

chemiosmosis

E stored in form of hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as synthesis of ATP

proton-motive force

potential E stored in form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis

aerobic

containing O; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires O

anaerobic

Lacking O;eferring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks O and may be poisoned by it

alcohol fermentation

conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol

light reactions

The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar E to chemical E of ATP NADPH evolving O in process

Calvin Cycle

The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions) involving CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate

photophosphorylation

process generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive F generated by thylakoid of chloroplast during light reactions

carbon fixation

the incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote

cytochrome

an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts

noncyclic electron flow

a route of electron flow during the activity of the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and O. The net electron flow is from H2O to NADP+

cellular respiration

the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway, O is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel (In Eu cells, mitochondria)

reducing agent

In generalized reaction, substance X, the electron donor

oxidizing agent

In generalized reaction, substance Y, the electron acceptor

critic acid cycle

Takes place in pyruvate, completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to CO2

substrate-level phosphorylation

Type of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation

cytochromes

most of the electron carriers between ubiquinone and O.

facultative anaerobes

organisms, such as yeasts and many bacteria, can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration. On cellular level, muscle cells. In a ---- pyruvate is a fork in the metabolic road that leads to alternative catabolic routes

beta oxidation

metabolic sequence that breaks down fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA

autotrophs

self-feeders; sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. produce organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials from the environment. producers

heterotrophs

other-feeders; obtain their organic material by the second major mode of nutrition. live on compounds produced by other organisms. consumers

chlorophyll

green pigment within chloroplasts, is where the color of the leaf comes from

mesophyll

where chloroplasts are found mainly in the cell. it's the tissue in the interior of the leaf

stomata

sing. stoma; pores where CO2 enters the leaf and O exits

cellular respiration

the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway, O is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel (In Eu cells, mitochondria)

reducing agent

In generalized reaction, substance X, the electron donor

oxidizing agent

In generalized reaction, substance Y, the electron acceptor

critic acid cycle

Takes place in pyruvate, completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to CO2

substrate-level phosphorylation

Type of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation

cytochromes

most of the electron carriers between ubiquinone and O.

facultative anaerobes

organisms, such as yeasts and many bacteria, can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration. On cellular level, muscle cells. In a ---- pyruvate is a fork in the metabolic road that leads to alternative catabolic routes

beta oxidation

metabolic sequence that breaks down fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA

autotrophs

self-feeders; sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. produce organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials from the environment. producers

heterotrophs

other-feeders; obtain their organic material by the second major mode of nutrition. live on compounds produced by other organisms. consumers

chlorophyll

green pigment within chloroplasts, is where the color of the leaf comes from

mesophyll

where chloroplasts are found mainly in the cell. it's the tissue in the interior of the leaf

stomata

sing. stoma; pores where CO2 enters the leaf and O exits

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