AP Bio Chapter 9 Vocabulary (Cellular Respiration)

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The vocabulary for chapter 9 and 10 of AP biology - cellular respiration and photosynthesis. (from Campbell text)

Fermentation

partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen (catabolic process)

Aerobic Respiration

a catabolic pathway where oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel

Cellular Respiration

anaerobic and aerobic respiration

Oxidation

the loss of electrons from one substance

Reduction

the addition of electrons to another substance

Reducing Agent

the electron donor

Oxidizing Agent

the electron acceptor

NAD+

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an electron carrier

Electron Transport Chain

oxidative phosphorylation (occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria)

Oxidative Phosphorylation

producing ATP, powered by the redox reactions of the electron transport chain

Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

making ATP by an enzyme transferring phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.

Acetyl CoA

Acetyl Coenzyme A, which is produced by pyruvate

ATP synthase

a protein complex which helps phosphorylate ADP into ATP

Chemiomosis

the gradient across a membrane used to drive cellular work

Proton-Motive Force

the H+ gradient

Alcohol Fermentation

the fermentation where pyruvate is converted to ethanol

Lactic Acid Fermentation

the fermentation where pyruvate is reduced directly to NADH

Obligate Anaerobes

organisms which only carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and cannot survive in the presence of oxygen

Facultative Anaerobes

organisms which produce enough ATP to use either fermentation or respiration

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