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matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

mass

a measure of the amount of matter in an object

element

a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

atom

the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element.

nucleus

an atoms central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons

proton

has a positive charge and is located in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

has no charge

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

mass number

the sum of number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

electron

a subatomic particle that has a negative charge

orbital

a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons

isotope

an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons

compound

a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

chemical bond

the attractive force that holds ions or atoms together

covalent bond

a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

molecule

a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; smallest unit of matter

ion

an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a poitive or negative charge

ionic bond

the attractive force between oppositely charged ions which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another

energy

the capacity to do work

chemical reaction

the process by which one or more substances changes to produce one or more different substances

reactant

a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction

product

a substance that forms in a chemical reaction

metabolism

the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism

activation energy

the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction

catalyst

a substance that changes the rate of a chemical without being consumed or changed significantly

enzyme

a type o protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions in plants and animals without being permnently changed or destroyed

redox reaction

the reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms

oxidation reaction

a chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons such that the reactant becomes more positive in charge

reduction reaction

a chemical change in which electrons are gained, either by removal of oxygen, the addition o hydrogen, or the additive of electrons

polar

describes a molecule with opposite charges on opposite ends

hydrogen bond

the intermolecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecule is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule

cohesion

the force that holds molecules of a single material together

adhesion

the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with eachother

capillarity

a tiny blood vessel that allows an exchange between bonds and cells in tissue

solution

a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformily dispersed

solute

in a solution, the substance that dissolves the solvent

solvent

in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves

concentration

the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture , solution, or ore

saturated solution

a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions

aqueous solution

a solution in which water is the solvent

hydroxide ion

the OH(negative) ion

hydronium ion

an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water H(3)O(positive)

acid

any compound that increases the the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water

base

any compound that increases the number hydroxide ions when dissolved in water

pH scale

a range of values that are used to express the acidity or basicity of a system low numbers are acidic, high numbers are basic

buffer

a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it

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