Kaufman Literary Devices and Terms

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Myth

answers basic questions about the world and human life

Folk Tales

not supposed to be truthful or factual - teach reward of good or punishment of bad

Fables

short tales that show a moral - principal of right and wrong

Legends

some basis in historical facts

Nonfiction

writing about real people, places, and events

Informative Nonfiction

factual information - science, history...

Autobiography

true story of a person's life told by that person

Biography

true story of a person's life told by someone else

Essay

short piece of nonfiction writing that deals with one subject

Formal Essay

serious and scholarly essay

Informal Essay

written to share opinion or persuade someone

Personification

giving an idea or object human or animal qualities

Alliteration

repetition of the same sounds at the beginning of two or more words next to eachother

Imagery

using words to paint a picture of the text

Simile

comparing two things using like or as

Metaphor

comparing two things not using like or as

Hyperbole

a deliberate exaggeration used as a figure of speech

Foreshadowing

when the author gives hints about what is going on or happening in the story

Irony

a situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance of the idea

Pun

a play on words - humorous use of alike in sound but different meaning

Onomatopoeia

words that sound like what they mean

Analogy

something familiar is used to describe something unfamiliar

Idiom

expressions that make no sense when literally translated

Oxymoron

opposite words that are used together for effect

Characterization

the way the writer creates and develops a character

Dialect

a form of language as it is spoken in a certain place among a certain group of people

Mood

the feeling created by the writer for the reader

Fiction

writing that comes from an author's imagination

Short Story

a sort fiction story - usually revolves around one idea

Novel

has complex conflicts

Characters

a person or animal who takes part in the story

Setting

the time and place where the story happens

Plot

a series of events and character actions

Exposition

sets the stage for the story

Complications

as the story continues the plot gets more complex

Climax

the highest point of interest in the story

Resolution

loose ends are tied up

Theme

the main message

Internal Conflict

fighting with yourself

External Conflict

a conflict or struggle between two characters

Flashback

a scene or event from the past that appears in a narrative out of chronological order, to fill in information or explain something in the present

Point of View

the person through whose eyes and mind the reader sees

First Person

character in the story is the narrator

Third Person Omniscient

the author acts as the narrator

Third Person Limited Omniscient

the author tells the story but from a point of view of one of the characters in the story

Antagonist

bad guy

Protagonist

the good guy

Main Character

the most important character in a story

Minor Character

one who takes part in the action but is not the focus of attention

Tall Tales

humorous legends with exaggerated characters and impossible events

Urban Legends

realistic stories which happened recently - have supernatural elements

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