The tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true; without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others
The theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. Stimulated by the rise of experimental science.
A belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response
There is no such thing as absolute truth that exists in an objective way independent of what anyone happens to believe is true. Instead, truth is relative and may be different for different individuals or for different cultures.
The theory that certain knowledge is impossible.
Knowledge vs Belief
Distinguished by truth. If you know something, then what you claim to know must not only be true, but you must also believe it to be true. (page 24-25)
Knowledge vs Information
Requires the knower to understand information rather than acquiring it. (page 29)
Second Hand Knowledge
Sources of information from other people or communal experiences.
Words and phrases that can have a dual meaning and often tends to mislead people. Context is a counter to this and keeps interpretations reasonable.
A replacement for harsh words to add a positive connotation.
A colloquial expression whose meaning cannot be worked out from the meanings of the words it contains.
The saying of one thing in order to mean the opposite.
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable
Language determinds our experience of reality, and we can see and think only what our language allows us to see and think.
A radical position where all knowledge must ultimately be based on experience. Matter is simply the permanent possibility of sensation.
The view that the world described by science is the real world, as it is, independent of what we might take it to be.
An attempt to link the validity of a premise to a characteristic or belief of the person advocating the premise.
Claiming that something is true on the grounds that there is no evidence to support it.
A fallacy that occurs when a word is used in two different senses in an argument.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
A fallacy that consists of assuming that because one thing "B", follows another thing "A", then "A" must be the cause of "B".
The fallacy that involves the use of double standards - making an exception in your own case that you would not find acceptable if it came from someone else.
A property of formulae, statements, and arguments. A logically valid argument is one where the conclusion follows from the premises. An invalid argument is where the conclusion does not follow from the premises. A deductive argument may be valid but not sound. In other words, validity is a necessary condition for truth of a deductive syllogism but is not a sufficient condition.
Any form of reasoning that moves from the general to the particular.
Reasoning that moves from the particular to the general.
school of philosophy during the Roman Empire that emphasized reason as a means of understanding the natural state of things, or logos, and as a means of freeing oneself from emotional distress
Emotions are essentially physical in nature, and bodily changes come before, and cause, emotional changes.
Emotions felt first after a situation.
a defense mechanism in which perceived controversial behaviors or feelings are explained in a rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, to differentiate from the original deterministic explanation, of the behavior or feeling in question.
The "aha" moment of of insight when you suddenly see a solution to a problem without going through any conscious process of reasoning.