Chapter 10 Sec 2 Medterms

136 terms by Rachellesmith7 

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angioplasty

surgical repair of a blood vessel

atherectomy

excision of fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter)

endarterectomy

excision within the artery (excision of plaque from the arterial wall). This procedure is usually named for the artery to be cleaned out, such as carotid endarterectomy, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery.

pericardiocentesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium) (used to remove fluid or air, usually to relieve cardiac tamponade)

phlebectomy

excision of a vein

phlebotomy

incision into a vein (to remove blood or to give blood or intravenous fluids) (also called venipuncture)

valvuloplasty

surgical repair of a valve (cardiac or venous)

splenectomy

excision of the spleen

splenopexy

surgical fixation of the spleen

thymectomy

excision of the thymus gland

aneurysmectomy

surgical excision of an aneurysm

atrial fibrillation ablation

a procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency energy

cardiac pacemaker

battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart; used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm, usually one that is too slow, secondary to an abnormal sinus node.

coronary artery bypass graft

surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries

coronary stent

a supportive scaffold device placed in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy; used to treat an artery occluded by plaque.

embolectomy

surgical removal of an embolus or clot, usually with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon beyond the clot, then pulling the balloon back to the incision and bringing the clot with it

femoropopliteal bypass

surgery to establish an alternative route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction

implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD)

a device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. If life-threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm.

intracoronary thrombolytic therapy

an injection of a medication either intravenously or intraarterially to dissolve blood clots in the coronary arteries

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. Inflation of the balloon compresses the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the inner diameter of the blood vessel, which allows the blood to circulate more freely (also called balloon angioplasty).

bone marrow aspiration

a syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells

bone marrow biopsy

a needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells

bone marrow transplant

infusion of healthy bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient

angiography

radiographic imaging of blood vessels(the procedure is named for the vessel to be studied, e.g., femoral angiography or coronary angiography)

angioscope

instrument used for visual examination (of the lumen) of a blood vessel

angioscopy

visual examination (of the lumen) of a blood vessel

aortogram

radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contrast media)

arteriogram

radiographic image of an artery (after an injection of contrast media)

venography

radiographic imaging of vein (after an injection of contrast media)

echocardiogram (ECHO)

record of the heart (structure and motion) using sound (used to detect valvular disease and evaluate heart function)

electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)

record of the electrical activity of the heart

electrocardiograph

instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart

electrocardiography

process of recording the electrical activity of the heart

digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

a process of digital radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied

Doppler ultrasound

a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities.

exercise stress test

a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising.

single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

a nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles. A radioactive tracer substance such as sestamibi or thallium is injected intravenously. The SPECT scanner creates images from the tracer absorbed by the body tissues. It is used to assess damage to cardiac tissue.

thallium test

a nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess revascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery. Thallium, a radioactive isotope, is injected into the body intravenously; a radiation detector is placed over the heart and images are recorded. Thallium is taken up by the normal myocardial cells, but not in ischemia or infarction. These areas are identified as "cold" spots on the images produced. Thallium testing can be performed when the patient is at rest or it can be part of a stress test.

transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)

an ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures

cardiac catheterization

an examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels. A catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressures and inject a contrast medium, enabling the visualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers; used most frequently to evaluate chest pain and coronary artery disease

impedance plethysmography (IPG)

measures venous flow of the extremities with a plethysmograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volume and resistance (impedance) in the vein; used to detect deep vein thrombosis

blood pressure (BP)

pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls. A blood pressure measurement written as systolic pressure (120) and diastolic pressure (80) is commonly recorded as 120/80.

pulse

the rhythmic expansion of an artery that can be felt with a finger. The pulse is most commonly felt over the radial artery; however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral and carotid arteries.

sphygmomanometer

device used for measuring blood pressure

C-reactive protein (CRP)

a blood test to measure the amount of C-reactive protein in the blood, which, when evaluated, indicates inflammation in the body. It is sometimes used in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

creatine phosphokinase (CPK)

a blood test used to measure the level of creatine phosphokinase, an enzyme of heart and skeletal muscle released into the blood after muscle injury or necrosis. The test is useful in evaluating patients with acute myocardial infarction.

homocysteine

a blood test used to measure the amount of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid that, if elevated, may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

lipid profile

a blood test used to measure the amount of lipids in a sample of blood. This test is used to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to monitor therapy of existing disease. Results provide levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides

troponin

a blood test that measure troponin, a heart muscle enzyme. Troponins are released into the blood approximately 3 hours after necrosis of the heart muscle and may remain elevated from 7 to 10 days. The test is useful in the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction.

coagulation time

blood test used to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot

complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff)

basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number and morphology (size and shape), leukocyte count, and white blood cell differential (types of white blood cells) and platelet count. The test is automated, thus done easily and rapidly, and provides a tremendous amount of information about the blood.

hematocrit (HCT)

a blood test to measure the volume of red blood cells. It is used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients.

hemoglobin (Hgb)

blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells

prothrombin time (PT)

blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin, an oral anticoagulant medication. (Activated partial thromboplastin time [PTT] is used to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking heparin, and intravenous anticoagulant medication.

atrioventricular

pertaining to the atrium and ventricle

cardiac

pertaining to the heart

cardiogenic

originating in the heart

cardiologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the heart

cardiology

study of the heart (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart and blood vessels)

hypothermia

condition of (body) temperature that is below (normal) (sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery)

intravenous

pertaining to within the vein

phlebologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the veins

phlebology

study of veins (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the veins)

hematologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the blood

hematology

study of the blood (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood)

hematopoiesis

formation of blood (cells)

hemolysis

dissolution of (red) blood (cells)

hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding

myelopoiesis

formation of bone marrow

plasmapheresis

removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood)

thrombolysis

dissolution of a clot

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage

defibrillation

application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm

diastole

phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading)

extracorporeal

occurring outside the body. During open-heart surgery extracorporeal circulation occurs when blood is diverted outside the body to a heart-lung machine.

extravasation

escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue

fibrillation

rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contractions of the atria or ventricles

heart murmur

a short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin

hypercholesterolemia

excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood; associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease

hyperlipidemia

excessive amount of fats (triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood

hypertension

blood pressure that is above normal (greater than 140/90)

hypertriglyceridemia

excessive amount of triglycerides in the blood; associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease

hypotension

blood pressure that is below normal (less than 90/60)

lipids

fats and fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body and are an important constituent of cell structure

lumen

space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel

occlude

to close tightly, to block

systole

phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading)

vasoconstrictor

agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels

vasodilator

agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels

venipuncture

puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion

anticoagulant

agent that slows the blood clotting process

blood dyscrasia

abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood

hemorrhage

rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding

allergen

an environmental substance capable of producing an immediate hypersensitivity in the body (allergy). Common allergens are house dust, pollen, animal dander, and various foods.

allergist

a physician who studies and treats allergic conditions

allergy

hypersensitivity to a substance, resulting in an inflammatory immune response

anaphylaxis

an exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to a previously encountered antigen such as bee venom, peanuts, or latex. Symptoms range from mild, with patients experiencing hives or sneezing, to severe symptoms such as drop in blood pressure and blockage of the airway, which can lead to death within minutes (also called anaphylactic shock).

antibody

a substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens (also called immunoglobulins)

antigen

a substance that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body. Examples of antigens are transplant tissue, toxins, and infectious organisms.

autoimmune disease

a disease caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies, thus producing antibodies that attack its own tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are examples of autoimmune diseases.

immune

being resistant to specific invading pathogens

immunodeficiency

deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by disease (HIV infection) or immunosuppressive drugs (prednisone)

immunologist

a physician who studies and treats immune system disorders

immunology

the branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders

phagocytosis

a process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microorganism and old cells

vaccine

a suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spray to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

AFib

atrial fibrillation

AV

atrioventricular

BP

blood pressure

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

coronary artery disease

CBC and Diff

complete blood count and differential

CCU

coronary care unit

CHF

congestive heart failure

CPK

creatine phosphokinase

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CRP

C-reactive protein

DSA

digital subtraction angiography

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

ECG,EKG

electrocardiogram

ECHO

echocardiogram

HCT

hematocrit

Hgb

hemoglobin

HHD

hypertensive heart disease

ICD

implantable cardiac defibrillator

IPG

impedance plethysmography

IV

intravenous

MI

myocardial infarction

PAD

peripheral arterial disease

PT

prothrombin time

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

RBC

red blood cell (erythrocyte)

SPECT

single-photon emission computed tomography

TEE

transesophageal echocardiogram

WBC

white blood cell (leukocyte)

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