End of World War II. 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Formation of Arab League.
End of British mandate. UN Partition plan began to give Jews and Arabs each their own states. 56% Jews and 43% Arabs and 1% Intern (Jerus/Beth). Zionists/Jews agree to the UN Partition but Arabs said no and fighting began.
State of Israel declared. Arabs attack. 750,000 Palestinian refugees came. Weizmann becomes the first president of Israel.
Armistice. Egypt received Gaza. Jordan received the West Bank. Israel gained 77% of the land. Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan.
Suez Canal Crisis occurred when Egypt's leader, Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal. Israel, Britain, France teamed up against Egypt. The United States intervened.
Three Persistent Problems
1. Borders and occupied territories. 2. Palestinian refugees and the Right of Return. 3. Jerusalem.
Six Day War. Egypt's Nasser closed the Suez Canal to Israel. Israeli surprise attack on Egypt and Jordan occurred. Israel's gains: West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jerusalem, Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula, 1.3 million Palestinians. Nasser resigned and then died of a heart attack.
Palestinian Liberation Organization --> terrorist group against Israel.
Black September. PLO got kicked out of Jordan.
Yom Kippur War --> "right of return" for Jews. Surprise attack by Egypt and Syria. Initial Arab victories but Israel dominated. 1 consequence: Arab oil embargo caused economic panic.
Camp David Peace Accords. Treaty between Egypt and Israel. Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt. Money/$ for both sides. Leaders --> Egypt: Anwar Sadat, Israel: Begin, US: Jimmy Carter. Egypt expelled from Arab League. Sadat was assassinated two years later (1981).
Revolution that drove out the Shah and established an Islamic Republic. Ayatollah Khomeini was in power. Anti-US and USSR/US embassies were taken over. Relates to Persepolis.
Leader of Egypt after Nasser in 1970. Later assassinated.
Iran-Iraq War --> 8 bloody years. US favored Iraq but had secret dealings with Iran.
Iraeli invasion of Lebanon/PLO
Beginning of Intifada (uprising/bursts). Internal resistance of Palestinians within Occupied territories/areas. *Rocks were used instead of fighting Arabs/PLO the occupied territories people, who were under Israel, were mad and didn't want to leave so they fought and used rocks to fight to stay on the areas.
Right of Return
All Jews have the "right of return" to come back to Israel and be a citizen.
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
Gulf War I
Oslo, Norway Accords (Israel and PLO negotiations). Established Palestinian Authority. More autonomy for occupied areas. Great hope for resolution of Arab-Israeli conflict. Leaders: Israel - Rabin. PLO - Yassir Arafat. This was the last successful peace treaty. Rabin was later assassinated by a Jewish extremist.
Palestinian Authority (P.A.)
Palestinians could have their own police. Maybe later have their own country. Israel started to back off. Tons of hope for Palestinians.
Renewed Intifada (following visit of Ariel Sharon to Temple Mount). Bursts and flares came about after Sharon visited the holy site. This was the year of Israel's final Lebanon withdrawal.
Israeli withdrawal from Gaza (under Sharon). Gaza was a colony, not a country. This withdrawal hardly worked because some Israeli people are still in Gaza.
"Gaza-Israeli Altercation." Gaza began rocketing and fighting Israel. Israel ended up invaded Gaza big time.
Resettlement in West Bank. The Wall of West Bank was important.
UN Partition Plan of 1947
The plan that offered to set up a Jewish state and an Arab state, and fixed their borders. Jewish state was to be three segments, and was to include Jaffa, Jerusalem (an international zone), and the Negev desert. Jews accepted the plan, but Arabs said no and started attacking Jewish settlements in Palestine. Many Jewish settlements were in the Arab states - problem. Gave both groups access to the Mediterranean.
UN Partition Plan Economic Union
The UN wanted their to be an Economic Union between the Arab and Jewish states. Arabs rejected their statehood and this Economic Union.