Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Rocky Mountain School
The Rocky Mountain School was more a school of thought than an actual institution. Its members were influenced by the beauty of the Rocky Mountains and the surrounding landscape. The most famous members were Albert Bierstacht and Thomas Moran. Their works romanticized the West.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
to manage Indian removal to western lands, Congress approved the creation of a new government agency
Sand Creek massacre / battle of
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Battle of the Little Big Horn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered.
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
the Great Plains from Texas to Canada, where many ranchers raised cattle in the 1800s.
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
scientific management, encouraged the development of mass production techniques and the assembly line, led to a revolution in American education of social science.
made his fortune in steamboating, he expanded older eastern railroads, replacing iron with steel rails
an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person
the liability of a firm's owners for no more than the capital they have invested in the firm
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
J. P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
an association of companies for some definite purpose
A legal arrangement whereby control over property is transferred to a person or organization (the trustee) for the benefit of someone else (the beneficiary).
a form of business which does not create anything itself; instead, it owns the stock of companies that do produce goods
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
"Survival of the fittest"; Social Darwinism between societies and cultures
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
National Labor Union
organized in 1866 for arbitration of disputes and an 8 hour workday
Great Railroad Strike
A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Railroad roadhouse was torched. Their violent acts led them to be suppressed by the government, while damaging the reputation of unions.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for SKILLED workers.
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Frederick Law Olmstead
landscape architect who drew the plan for Central Park
an exposition held in Chicago in 1893 to honor the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus's first voyage; so-called dream of loveliness; visited by over 27 million people; raised American artistic standards and promote city planning; was a revival of classical architectural forms, and a setback for realism
The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Designed by John Roebling. Combines two structural systems, steal cables(tension) and the arches themselves (comprassion). established the structural basis for all modern suspension bridges; it also employed the first steel used in an American structure.
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)
walled up cities where Jews and others were forced to live
an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.
one of americas most distincitve political insitutions. it was the product of potential voting power of large immigrant communities. It provided aid and support to a large immigrant group so it could gain their votes and push bosses into political office
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
William M. Tweed
a disgraced American politician who was convicted for stealing millions of dollars from New York City taxpayers through political corruption and died in jail. Tweed was head of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York.
Chicago based catalogue company still in existence; at one time allowed people in rural areas to get manufactured goods
National Consumers League
formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.
Land Grant Institutions
schools or colleges that were created because of the Morill Land Grant Act.
National College Athletic Association
Headquartered in Greenville, South Carolina, Focus on the promotion and enhancement of intercollegiate athletic competition with a Christian perspective, More than 100 member schools, Division I consists of 47 liberal arts institutions, Division II consists of 48 Bible colleges
United States educator (born in Canada) who invented the game of basketball (1861-1939)
A twentieth-century American writer of popular songs. His songs include "God Bless America"
stage entertainment made up of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows
carried the motion picture into the new era with his silent epics (The Birth of a Nation, Intolerance, etc.) which introduced serious plots and elaborate productions to filmmaking. Motion pictures were the first truly mass entertainment medium.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers