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Interactions between Muslims and Europeans during the seventeenth century are most commonly found in

the Indian Ocean

An example of diffusion rather than independent invention is

the origin of the Greek alphabet

Early agriculture in the America's

began later than in the Eastern Hemisphere

The Agricultural Revolution

saw the use of agricultural methods that encouraged migration

During the Agricultural Revolution, women

observed and studied the agricultural environment

The neolithic period

saw the beginnings of urbanization

Early urban dwellers

saw the need for a government

The Egyptian civilization was similar to the Sumerian civilization

in its system of social stratification

The earliest civilizations in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres were similar in

their practice of polytheism

The Indus valley civilization

relied heavily on communal planning

The early civilization with the least developed technology was

Mesoamerican

The Maya civilization

was a byproduct of cultural diffusion from earlier Mesoamerican societies, had a stratified society, and developed a city-state political structure(all of the above)

Shang China

contributed to the development of central government in China

Early societies of South America

relied on community cooperation to construct irrigation systems

Results of cultural diffusion among early civilizations included

the legend of Quetzalacoatl

All of the following Chinese traditions and achievements began under the Han dynasty EXCEPT

Confucian philosophy

The roots of classical India included

Vedictraditional literature

From the time of the Roman republic to the Pax Romana

the territory of Rome continued to expand

under both the Han and Roman empires

Imperial roads were connected to the Silk Roads, new territories were added to the empires, a time of peace settled over both empires, and enduring cultural traditions were established(all of the above)

The Hellenistic empire of Alexander

blended Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures

Under Gupta India

Arabic numerals originated in India

The Persians

continued the traditions of ancient Mesopotamia

Greek society

was extended through overseas colonization

Both Hinduism and Buddhism

(None of the above)

Christianity

taught the forgiveness of sins through faith in Jesus

Confucianism and early Buddhism

did not believe that their founders were gods

Daoism and Confucianism

based their teachings on Chinese traditions

The Silk Roads were especially instrumental in the spread of

Buddhism

During the period of the late Roman Empire, Christianity

experienced a change in its official status

Hinduism

addressed the consequences of one's behavior

Buddhism

changed over time to teach that common people could reach nirvana

During the classical period, Africa

saw new technology used in trans-Saharan travel

The decliningyears of Han China and the Roman empire shared all of the following EXCEPT

assimilations of invading peoples into imperial culture

Attempts to save the Roman Empire from ruin included

the establishment of a new capital in the eastern empire

The eastern portion of the Roman Empire

was a center of trade, art, and architecture

The decline of Gupta India

saw the increased power of local princes

SIlk Road trade

established links between the empires of Han China and Rome

Indian Ocean trade

saw mariners utilize the geographic forces of the Indian Ocean

The decline of Han China

witnessed Daoism, rather than Confucianism, gaining popularity

With regard to the doctrines of Islam in the peropd 600-1450,

they were embraced by members of the lower Hindu castes in Indian because of their emphasis on equality.

The area in which Islam showed the most profound change during the seventh to the fifteenth centuries was in

the role of women

One of the weaknesses of the early Muslim empires was

failure to resolve questions of succession

The Abbasid dynasty

proved the high point of Muslim cultural achievement

Which of the following qualifies as a primary source on the teachings of Muhammad?

The Hadith

Muhammad

built on the religious traditions of the Arabian peninsula

The Five Pillars

provide unity within Islam

As a new faith, Islam gained strength

within portions of the former Roman Empire

Confucianism

combined with Buddhism to create a cultural bridge between China and Korea

Which was NOT an achievement of the Tang dynasty?

the solution to the problem of nomadic peoples along China's border

The position of Chinese women

was defined by Confucianism

Japanese feudalism

saw the beginnings of a centralized Japan

Compared to the Viets, the Chinese were more

urbanized

Compared to Korean attitudes toward the Chinese, those of the Japanese

were similar in their desire to become part of the Chinese trading system

The position of the Chines scholar-gentry

weakened efforts to curb nomadic invasions

Buddhism became more popular among China's neighbors than in China itself because

Buddhism did not originate in China

In contrast to Japanese feudalism, Western European feudalism

created a reciprocal relationship between lord and vassal

Early medieval Europe's strongest state was

the Holy Roman Empire

The period of greatest population decline in Europe during the Middle Ages was

the 14th century

During the Middle Ages, the concept of limited government was seen most clearly in

England

Which statement describes Europe between the ninth to fifteenth centuries?

the expansion of the Eastern world into Western Europe

Trade during the medieval period

placed Europe within the Muslim commercial network

The fifteenth century saw

the strengthening of nation-states in England and France

Medieval Europe

developed new banking institutions from multicultural contacts

Under Mongol rule in China

Chinese regional rulers were allowed to govern

The influence of nomadic peoples in Eurasia

created reciprocal relationship between nomads and settled peoples

Both the Aztecs and Incas

built on the traditions of their predecessors

Aztec and Incan religions

reflected the agrarian nature of their respective societies

The natives of North America

used architectural designs similar to those of Mesoamerica

Mongol rule in Russia and China differed in that

the Mongols became more involved in administration in China than in Russia

Historians studying linguistic syncretism would be most interested in

the Bantu migrations

The Black Death

changed the course of political institutions

The Yuan dynasty was brought down by all of the following EXCEPT

foreign resistance to the Mongol Peace

The Renaissance

was a result of the Crusades

European exploration through the mid-fifteenth century

depended upon the knowledge of the Eastern world

Which of the American societies altered their environment most extensively?

the Aztecs

The Aztec and Incan civilizations differed most significantly in their

system of recordkeeping

Trade among the peoples of the Americas

was most similar in the Maya and Toltec societies

Which of the American peoples was closest to the Persians in their administrative style?

the Incas

Both the Aztecs and Incas

were tribute empires

Mercantilism

sparked further rivalries among European nations

In the early eighteenth century, the political system where citizens enjoyed the greatest amount of self-rule was

England

Both the Russian empire and Ming China

established policies that were a reaction to the Mongol presence in central Asia

A comparison of the reactions of Japan and China to European influence in the period 1450-1750 shows that

Japan saw the need for knowledge of Western developments, but China did not

Compared to the Spanish empire, that of the Portuguese

was more global in its extent

The Mughal empire

produced art and architecture that reflected syncretism

The Ottoman empire

weakened because its technology fell behind that of Europe

The nation-state

arose in Europe because of its diversity of cultural groups

European explorations

sought to break established trade monopolies

The Columbian Exchange

produced both positive and adverse effects on world population

The English and French engaged in rivalries over territories in

North America

The region with the greatest number of colonial and commercial competitors was

Indonesia

The Netherlands established commercial or colonial interests in all of the following areas EXCEPT

western Africa

Which of the following regions sustained trade patterns that were the most different from the others before the 18th century?

Russia

Which crop arrived in the Amerixas as part of the Columbian Exchange as a key product of the Americas?

sugar

As a result of the hemispheric trade between 1450-1750,

European wealth and commercial dominance increased

African kingdoms in the period from 1450-1750

were involved in the slave trade before the arrival of Europeans

Compared to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, that of eastern Africa

also involved the plantation system

Within Africa, the slave trade

increased African dependence on European nations

Historians searching for the earliest models of European plantation slavery would need to study

the history of the Madeira and Canary Islands

The African slave trade

was frequently the result of African rivalries

The trans-Atlantic slave trade

increased after the establishment of sugar plantations

When the Portuguese first became involved in the slave trade

they were interested primarily in gold and spices

Sugar plantations

especially valued slave from western Africa

Bothe the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment

questioned political authority

Chinese technological and philosophical developments

assisted the spread of Reformation thought

All of the following describe the Scientific Revolution EXCEPT that

it was modeled on Chinese philosophy

Enlightenment thought

resembled Renaissance thought

The Protestant and Catholic Reformations were alike

in their emphasis on education

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

both held that reason could be used to improve humanity

Which of the following is NOT a finding of the Scientific Revolution or the Enlightenment?

Movable type

Which of the following concepts of the period 1450-1750 did NOT rely on natural laws?

Predestination

A major difference between the teachings of Buddhism and Hinduism is

belief in nirvana

Bantu-speakers settled in all of the following areas of Africa EXCEPT

West Africa

An element of Chinese culture that the Japanese did not adopt was

the civil service examination system

The Delhi Sultanate and the Aztecs had which of the following methods of governing in common?

Tribute system

Which of the following was a major problem that led to the decline of both the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire?

Neither empire had a clear policy on the succession of the ruler

Which of the following most clearly differentiates the period from 1450-1750 from earlier periods?

The inclusion of the Americas in the global trade network

Although different in their sources of power, the governments of Great Britain and France had which of the following characteristics in common?

Both nations had a small elite of landowning aristocrats who were considered the "natural" ruling class with power and influence in the government

Which of the following developments in the Americas accounted most directly for the growth of slave trade?

the establishment of the plantaion system of sugar production in the Caribbean and Brazil

A major idea that the freamers of the US Constitution absorbed from the enlightenment was

the concept of a federal republic

All of the following are causes of the Industrial Revolution EXCEPT

urbanization

"It is the imminent peril threathening you and all the faithful, which has brought us hither. From the confines of Jerusalem and the city of Constantinople a horrible tale has gone forth..."
The above was probably spoken about which of the following?

the capture of the Holy Land by the Seljuk Turks

Which of the following that occurred in western Europe in the period from 1450 to 1750 did not result in long-term changes?

the growth of strong centralized monarchies

Which of the following is the best description of the effect of the Age of Exploration of Europeans?

As a result of the decline in the fortunes of the feudal nobility and the rise in the fortunes of the merchant class, monarchies were able to limit the influence of the feudal nobility

Which of the following actions had a long-term effect on relations between western and eastern Europe in the Middle Ages?

the crowning of Charlemagne by the pope

All of the following were direct results of the Crusades EXCEPT

the decline of feudalism

All of the following are accurate descriptions of the difference between Hinduism and Islam EXCEPT

Hinduism rejects the use of human form in religious and secular art, whereas the human form is an important subjuect in Islamic art

All of the following were unintended results of the Mongol invasions EXCEPT

the collapse of the Byzantine Empire

The major reason why pastoral nomadism did not develop in the Americas was

the lack of large domesticated animals such as cattle

Which of the following is an accurate description of an economic difference that existed between the Roman Empire and Han China?

Han China relied less on a slave labor system than did the Roman Empire

Which of the following is the most accurate description of the similarities between the Sudanic empires of Africa and the empires of the Aztecs and Inca?

The empireds relied on military force to enlarge their territories

Which of the following is an accurate description of a cultural characteristic that the Celts, Slavs, and Germans of northern Europe had in common around 200 CE?

the overall political organization of the Celts, Slavs and Germans evolved into regional kingdoms

Bedouins were instrumental in spreading which of the following religions?

Islam on the Arabian Peninsula

Which of the following is not an accurate description of why Islam appealed to so many people?

Because Islam lacked any legal code, it was possible to adapt Islam to any form of governmental organization

Which of the following were trading partners of the Abbasid Empire?

The Mediterranean region and China

The area of the African continent that was most significantly affectec by the slave trade was

West Africa

Which of the following best describes the East African trading centers prior to the arrival of the Portuguese?

The cities were a mix of black African and Islamic peoples and culture traits

ALl of the following are general characteristics of pastoral nomadic societies EXCEPT

there was little intertribal warfare

According to Confucius the most important aspect of the role of the scholar-gentry was

to maintain harmony among the social classes by administering the state and advising the ruler wisely

Which of the following was a major difference between the way the Roman Empire was administered and the way the later Byzantine Empire was governed?

The Roman Empire lacked the bureaucratic system of administration that the Byzantine Empire developed

which of the following challenged Hinduism?

Buddhism

All of the following are true about sub-Saharan African societies prior to the arrival of Europeans EXCEPT

the idea of kings as rulers rather than kinship groups with a chief and council of elders never became popular among the rain forest or savanna peoples

All of the following modern nations lacked centrailized monarchies at the end of the Middle Ages EXCEPT

Spain

A major difference between the Amerindians of North America and the Aztec of Mesoamerica prior to the arrival of Europeans was

the importance of kindship as the unit of organization among the North Americans

Which of the following was instrumental in making Europeans the leaders of global trade in the 1400s

The Ming ended all Chinese trading ventures to India, the Middle East, and Africa, opening the way for others

All of the following resulted from the Protestant Reformation EXCEPT

the general acceptance of personal freedom of religion

By 1600 the expansion of which of the following had ended invasions from Central Asia?

Russia and the Ottoman Empire

A major difference between the Inca and the Aztec was

the development of limited pastoralism by the Inca

Which of the following were important trading cities along the East Coast of Africa?

Kilwa, Mogadishu, and Sofala

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