Chapter 14 - Cell Division

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chromosomes

rod shaped cell structures that direct the activities of a cell and passes on the traits of a cell to new cells

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm, usually at the end of nuclear division.

cytoplasm

gel-like substance in which all cellular components outside the nucleus are immersed.

daughter cell

one of two cells resulting from the division of a single cell.

diploid

a cell that contains two of each type of chromosome, such as a human somatic cell.

chromatin

The loose and uncoiled form of DNA seen during interphase

G1 stage

first stage in interphase, during which cellular growth and development takes place

G2 stage

third stage of interphase during which organelle replication and protein synthesis takes place

gametes

reproductive cells; sperm and egg cells in animals.

hereditary material

the information which is passed from one cellular generation to the next (encoded in DNA in humans).

homologous chromosome

A member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry

interphase

the portion of the cell cycle where the cell is not dividing; includes G1, S and G2 stages.

metaphase

the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the replicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the cell

mitosis

process of cellular division in which the daughter cells are genetically identical to themselves and to the parent cell.

nucleus

organelle in the center of the cell which contains the chromosomes.

prophase

the first stage of mitosis /meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope

replicated chromosomes

chromosomes which have undergone DNA replication and contain two sister chromatids.

S-phase

second stage of interphase ; period of DNA replication.

sister chromatids

two identical copies of a parent chromosome which are attached to one another at the centromere.

somatic cell

any cell in the body that is not a germ cell (reproductive cell).

spindle fibers

protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.

telophase

the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

clones

A group of cells derived from a single ancestor.

anaphase

the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the poles

centrioles

specialized organelles that facilitate cell division

centromere

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

cleavage furrow

contractile ring of microfilaments in animal cell where the cell membrane is divided

cell plate

the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two

cancer

any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division

radiation therapy

treatment using x-rays to destroy cancerous tissue

chemotherapy

the use of chemical agents to treat or control some types of cancer (destroys cells or prevents them from dividing)

meiosis

cell division that occurs in sex cells in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.

synapsis

the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis

disjunction

The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis

crossing over

exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis

gametogenesis

The formation of haploid gametes (sperm or ova) via meiosis.

oogenesis

the meiotic process that results in the formation of eggs

spermatogenesis

the meiotic process that results in the formation of sperm cells

parent cell

original cell that divides to produce two new daughter cells during mitosis

oncogens

genes when mutated, can cause cancer

Haploid

cell containing half the number of chromosomes that the diploid parent contains

Diploid

cells that contain two copies of every chromosome

autosomes

chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual

sex chromosome

X or Y chromosome that carries the genes involved in determining the sex of an individual

mutation

a permanent change in the DNA molecule that can change the generic formation of a gene causing the gene to function improperly.

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (2n=46). How many chromatids do normal human cells have in Prophase |?

A cell in Prophase | is still diploid and there's a pair of chromatids for every chromosome. Since this cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 chromosomes, there are 92 chromatids in the cell.

Does this apply to mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Each daughter cell receives an identical complement of chromosomes.

Mitosis

Does this apply to mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent and to each other.

Mitosis

The fruit fly has a diploid number of 8 (2n=8). How many chromosomes are in a fruit fly spermatid?

A spermatid is a haploid cell, so the fruit fly spermatid will have 4 chromosomes.

Which of the following cells is a diploid? Gamete, zygote, first polar body, secondary spermatocyte?

Zygote

During what phases of mitosis do chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane?

Metaphase

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