Personal Training Chapter 1

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What is exercise physiology?

The study of the way cellls and tissues of the body function during exercise.

Name the three kinds of blood vessels and their function.

Arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. The exception is the pulmonary artery. Capillaries are where the exchange of nutrients takes place between the blood and the cells of the body. Veins carry deoxygenated blood away from the body to the heart. The exception is the pulmonary vein.

What is the difference between systole and diastole?

Systole refers to the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. Diastole refers to the relaxtion phase.

What is cardiac output?
What is stroke volume?

Cardiac output? The amount of blood that flows from each ventricle in one minute. The cardiac output from the left and right ventricles is exactly the same.
Cardiac output = Heart rate x Stroke Volume

Stroke Volume: The amount of blood pumped from each ventricle each time the heart beats.

What does "aerobic" means?

With oxygen. The first system for producing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), the aerobic system, is dominant when adequate oxygen is delivered into the cell to meet energy production needs, such as when the muscle is at rest.

What does "anaerobic" means?

Without oxygen. Anaerobic glycolysis and the creatine phosphate system are the primary sources of ATP when an adequate supply of oxygen is available.

What is mitochondria?

The site of aerobic energy (ATP) production. The greater the number of mitochondria in a cell, the greater the aerobic energy production capability of the cell.

Define ischemia.

Decreased blood flow, which can lead to an insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle, during rest or exercise. This insufficent oxygen (02) supply often leads to a sensation of pain and / or pressure in the chest, called angina pectoris.

What is V02 max?

V02 stands for the volume of oxygen consumed. Therefore V02 max is the hightest volume of oxygen a person can consume (utilize) during exercies; maximum aerobic capacity. V02 max = (cardiac output) x (oxygen extraction max).

What is anaerobic threshold?

Anaerobic: Without the presence of oxygen; not requiring oxygen.
Anaerobic Threshold: The point during high-intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand form oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates.

What are characteristics of slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers?

Slow Twitch: A type I (red) muscle fiber characterized by its slow spped of contraction and high capacity for aerobic glycolysis. Example: 50-yard dash sprinter.

What is hemoglobin?

The protein molecule in red blood cells specifically adapted to carry (bond with) oxygen molecules.

What is function of the Golgi tendon organ?

A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes a inhibition of the entire group to protect against too much force.

What is CAD and CHD?

Coronary artery disease (CAD); almost always the result of atherosclerosis. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD).

What is body composition?

The make-up of the body in terms of body fat (adipose tissue) and fat free mass (muscle, bones, blood, organs, etc.).
Fat free mass: the part of the body composition that represents everything but body fat - blood bones, connective tissues and organs; also called lean body mass.

What is a motor unit?

A single motor nerve and the muscle fibers (muscle cells) it stimulates.

Which of these is considered the primary limiting factor in no longer being able to produce ATP aerobically?

A. Lactic acid production
B. The ability to extract and use 02 at the muscle
C. The ability to increase the rate and depth of breathing
D. Carbon dioxide production

B. The ability to extract and use 02 at the muscle

In the phosphagen system, what is the primary limitation of producing ATP?

(Figure 1.3 pg. 9)

Muscles stores little CP and ATP.

Freshly oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium of the heart through the
A. Pulmonary artery
B. Pulmonary vein
C. Aorta
D. Superior vena cava

B. Pulmonary vein

Define flexibility.

Flexibility: a joint's ability to move freely through a full and normal range of motion (ROM). Within each joint for each activity there is an optimum ROM essential to peak performance.

What is hyperventilation?

A greater-than-normal rate of breathing, resulting in an abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood.
Dizziness may occur.

What is creatine phosphate (CP) adn the creatine phosphate system?

Creatine phosphate: A high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to resynthesize ATP immediately.

Creatine phosphate system: System of chemical transfer of energy for resynthesis of ATP supplied rapidly and without oxygen from the breakdown of creatine phosphate. Also called the ATP-CP system.

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