Biology Study Guide for Module #5

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Flashcards for study guide - Module #5 in Exploring Creation with Biology 2nd edition.

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space.

Model

An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.

Element

A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.

Molecules

Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.

Physical Change

A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.

Chemical Change

A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.

Phase

One of three forms - solid, liquid, or gas - which every substance is capable of attaining.

Diffusion

The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Concentration

A measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent.

Semipermeable Membrane

A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.

Osmosis

The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentrate.

Catalyst

A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.

Organic Molecule

A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous.

Biosynthesis

The process by which by living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones.

Isomers

Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula.

Monosaccharides

Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms.

Disaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides.

Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides.

Dehydration Reaction

A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.

Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water.

Hydrophobic

Lacking any affinity to water.

Saturated Fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms.

Unsaturated Fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.

Peptide Bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.

Hydrogen Bond

A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific.

Describe where the protons, neutrons, and electrons are in an atom.

Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom (the center), and the electrons circle around the neutrons and protons.

What determines the vast majority of characteristics in an atom?

The vast majority of an atom's properties are determined by the number of electrons (or protons) that an atom has.

What does the number after the atoms name signify?

Represents the sum of all protons and neutrons.

What is the difference between an element and an atom?

An element is a collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons, an atom is a fundamental piece of matter. (Matter is anything that takes up space)

How many electrons are in an atom that has 32 protons?

32

How many atoms (total) are in a molecule of C3H8O? What atoms are present and how many of each atom?

12 atoms total, 3 Carbon, 8 Hydrogen, 1 Oxygen.

Identify the following as an atom, element, or molecule:
a. H2CO3 b. nitrogen-14 c. P

a. Element b. Atom c. Element.

If you add energy to the molecules of a liquid, will it turn into a gas or a solid?

Gas.

A chemist wants to study diffusion. Should a semipermeable membrane be used?

No.

Two solutions of different solute concentration are separated by a membrane. After a while, the water levels of the two solutions change. Has osmosis or diffusion taken place. What kind of membrane is being used?

Osmosis.

Consider the following chemical reaction:
N₂ + 3H₂ --> 2NH₃
a. What are the reactants?
b. What are the products?
c. How many molecules of H₂ are used in the reaction?

a. N₂ + H₂
b. NH₃
c. 3

What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? What 4 things are necessary for a plant to carry out photosynthesis?

Chemical Equation: 6CO₂ + 6H₂O --> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
4 Things Necessary: Light, Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Chlorophyll.

Other than using a catalyst, how can a reaction be sped up?

Increased temperature.

Which of the following is a carbohydrate?
a.NH₃
b. CO₂
c. C₂H₄O
d. C₅H₁₀O₅
e. C₃H₈O₃

Carbohydrates have only Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen, therefore c. C₂H₄O is the Carbohydrate.

What kind of reaction is used for building disaccharides, polysaccharides, fats, and proteins? What kind of reaction can break these substances down?

A condensation reaction builds them up while hydrolysis breaks them down into their constituent parts.

Describe the pH scale and what it measures.

The pH scale measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. On this scale, 7 is neutral. Lower than 7 pH's are acidic, and higher than 7 are alkaline. The low the pH the more acidic, and the pH the more alkaline.

What are the building blocks of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides?

Amino acids link together to make proteins, fatty acids link to glycerol to make lipids, and monosaccharides link together to make polysaccharides.

If two proteins contain the same type and number of amino acids, but the order in which they link up is different, are the properties of the two proteins the same?

No.

What are enzymes, and for what purpose are they usually used?

Enzymes are a special class of proteins that are used as catalysts.

What is the "lock and key" theory of enzyme action?

It says that an enzyme has an active site that is shaped especially for the molecule that it must work on. The action that the enzyme takes cannot happen until the molecule attaches to that active site.

What are the basic parts of a nucleotide?

1) The Phosphate Group.
2) The Sugar.
3) The Base.

How does DNA store information?

It stores it as a sequence of nucleotide bases.

What holds the two helixes in a DNA molecule together?

Hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide bases hold the two helixes of DNA together.

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