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chemistry #1

matter

anything that has mass and occupies space

chemistry

study of characteristics, composition and transformation of matter

mass

is the amount of matter

weight

is the amount of gravitational pull on an object

solid - physical states

shape = definite
volume = definite
compressible = no
organization = very ordered

liquid - physical states

shape = indefinite
volume = definite
compressible = very little
organization = ordered (somewhat)

Gas - physical states

shape = indefinite
volume = no definite
compressible = highly
organization = very little order

state of matter

depends on its temperature, pressure and the strength of the intermolecular forces involved.

plasma

1. is the fourth physical state of matter
2. consists of a collection of free-moving electrons and ions - atoms that have lost electrons

properties (definition & 2 types)

1. are the distinguishing characteristics of a substance that are used to in its identification and description.
2. each substance is unique
3. Chemical and physical

Physical properties

1. of matter are those that we can observe or measure. 2. The chemical composition is not changed.
3. The physical appearance may change.
Ex. visibility, mass, chemical structure, color, smell, boiling point, melting point, density

Chemical properties

1. of matter are those that relate to how the substance changes in composition ,how it interacts with other substances, or resists change to form a new substance.
2. Interactions between substances are greatly influenced by temperature and pressure.
Ex. corrosive, combustion, reaction w/O2, reaction or no reaction

Changes in matter - physical

is process in which a substance changes its physical form or appearance but not its basic composition (chemical composition). A new substance is never formed as a result of physical change.

Changes in matter - chemical

1. is a process in which a substance changes in the chemical composition .
2. Matter is transformed completely into different materials and new substances (at least one) are formed.
3. A chemical reaction happens, the new substance(s) has different composition and chemical properties.

pure substance

1. is a single kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical means (require chemical means).
2. It always has a DEFINITE and
CONSTANT COMPOSITION.
3. Either element or compound
Ex. one substance present, two phases present (ice water)

Mixtures

1. is a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its chemical identity.
2. They are PHYSICALLY mixed rather than chemically combined.
3. Variable composition
Example: rock salt and sand. The components of a mixture can be separated by physical means.

hetrogeneous mixture

1. are mixtures that do not have uniform composition
and appearance throughout.
2. It contains visibly different phases (parts), each of
which has different properties.

Example: sulfur and iron, rocks, soils and wood

homogeneous mixture

1. are mixtures that contains only ONE visibly distinct PHASE, which has uniform properties throughout.

Example: sugar-water ( all the sugar has dissolved)

element

1. is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler pure substances by ordinary chemical means such as a reaction, an electric current, heat, or a beam of light. Cannot be broken down by physical means.
2. Made of atoms.
3. A sample of an element is composed of atoms of a single type
4. definite composition
Ex. Copper, Sulfur
H, C, P, N
element ----> atom

compound

1. is a pure substance that can be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances by CHEMICAL means.
2. The products are elements or simpler compounds.
3. A compounds properties are always different from those of its component elements, b/c the elements are chemically rather than physically combined
4. made of molecules
5. definite composition
ex. Co2, H2O, NaCl
compound -----> molecule ------>atom

atom

1. smallest identifiable piece of an element which has the element's properties.
2. smallest particle of an element that can exist
3. is the LIMIT OF CHEMICAL SUBDIVISION

molecules

- cluster of atoms bound tightly together
1. smallest identifiable piece of a compound.
2. molecules are made by atoms combined on definite proportions regardless of the source.
3. a group of two or more atoms that function as a unit b/c the atoms are tightly bound together
4. is the LIMIT OF PHYSICAL SUBDIVISION
5. smallest particle of a compound capable of a stable independent existence.

chemical symbol

is a one or two letter designation for an element derived from the element's name

diatomic molecule

molecule that contains two atoms

triatomic molecule

molecule that contains three atoms

tetratomic molecule

molecule that contains four atoms

pentatomic molecule

molecule that contains five atoms

hexatomic molecule

molecule that contains six atoms

heptatomic molecule

molecule that contains seven atoms

octatomic molecule

molecule that contains eight atoms

nonatomic molecule

molecule that contains nine atoms

homoatomic molecule

a molecule in which all atoms present are of the same kind (element). MUST BE AN ELEMENT

hetroatomic molecule

a molecule in which two or more kinds of atoms are present. MUST BE A COMPOUND

chemical formula

a notation made up of the chemical symbols of the elements present in a compound and numerical subscripts that indicate the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound

two phases

shows that it is not uniformly mixed

one phase

indicates that the mixture of two substances has uniform properties throughout
homogeneous

phase

a physically distinctive form of matter, such as a solid, liquid, gas or plasma

universe elements

hydrogen 91%
helium 9%

earth's elements

oxygen 60.1%
silicon 20.1%

human body element

H =60.5%
O = 25.7%
C =10.7%
N = 2.4%

sublimation

The transition of a substance from the solid phase
directly to the vapor phase, or vice versa, without passing through an intermediate liquid phase

evaporate

The conversion of a liquid (water) into a vapor (a
gaseous state) usually through the application of heat energy during the hydrologic cycle; the opposite of condensation.

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