1 First Look at Anatomy

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Anatomy

study of structure

Physiology

Study of function of body structures

Cytology

Study of cells

Histology

Study of tissues

Gross anatomy

Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye

Systemic anatomy

the branch of anatomy that studies the structure and function of the body's organ systems. (Student-friendly method)

Regional anatomy

the study of anatomy based on regions or divisions of the body and emphasizing the relations between various structures (muscles and nerves and arteries etc.) in that region

Surface anatomy

The study of landmarks on the outside of the human body that are created by underlying structures and their medical importance

Situs inversus

When organs are reversed left to right. (Donny Osmond's appendix is on the left side of his body)

Organ

Two or more tissues integrated to perform a particular function

Cellular

The level at which the majority of human illness and disease arises.

Skin

Largest organ of the body

Tissues

Groups of similar cells combine to form...

Manubrium

Latin for handle

Gladiolus

Latin for gladiator's sword

Xiphoid

Greek for sword-shaped

Anatomic position

When a person stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor. The head is level and the eyes are looking forward at the observer. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward.

Anterior view

Facing us

Lateral view

The person facing sideways

Coronal plane

Divides between front and back. Also known as the frontal plane.

Transverse plane

Divides the body into upper and lower portions. Also called horizontal plane or cross-sectional plane. The type of plane used on CT scans.

Midsagittal plane

Divides the body into equal halves, left and right. Also known as the median plane. There is only one median plane.

Anterior

The front. The same as ventral.

Ventral

The front. Same as anterior.

Posterior

The back side. Same as dorsal.

Dorsal surface

The back side. Same as posterior.

Superior

The top, or above. Same as cranial or rostral.

Rostrol

The top, or above. Same as cranial or superior.

Cranial

The top, or above. Same as superior or rostral.

Inferior

Down, or below. Same as caudal.

Internal

Closer to the inside of the body. Also known as Deep.

External

Closer to the outside of the body. Also known as Superficial.

Proximal

Closest to point of attachment to trunk or midline OR closest to ANY point of reference that is given.

Organism

Organs are combined together to create a complete...

Metabolism

Breaking down and utilizing nutrients

Metabolism, growth and development, responsiveness to the internal and external environment, homeostasis, and reproduction

Things humans are capable of because of our complex level of organization

Homeostasis

Regulation of the internal environment

To deliver nutrients and oxygen to every cell, and eliminate toxic wastes from each cell

Why we need the activities of our beautifully-interrelated organ systems

Hysterical

Emotional like a woman

Section

Implies an actual cut or slice

Plane

implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body

Frontal plane

Divides between front and back. Also known as the coronal plane

Horizontal plane

Divides the body into upper and lower portions. Also called transverse plane or cross-sectional plane. The type of plane used on CT scans.

Cross-sectional plane

Divides the body into upper and lower portions. Also called horizontal plane or transverse plane. The type of plane used on CT scans.

Median plane

Divides the body into equal halves, left and right. Also known as the midsaggital plane. There is only one midsagittal plane.

Sagittal plane

When a cut is done to the left or right of the midline. An infinite number of these planes exist and many such cuts are done in biological displays so that observers can "leaf through" slices of the human body like the pages of a book.

Caudal

Down, or below. Same as inferior.

Deep

Closer to the inside of the body. Also known as Internal.

Superficial

Closer to the outside of the body. Also known as External.

Medial

Toward the midline of the body

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body

Distal

Furthest from point of attachment to trunk or midline OR furthest from ANY point of reference that is given.

Axial region, appendicular region

The major regions of the body

Head, neck, trunk

Areas of the axial region

Upper extremity, lower extremity

Areas of the appendicular region

Facial region, Cranial region

Head is divided into which regions?

Eyes, nose, mouth

The facial region includes...

Covers and supports the brain

Location and function of cranial region

Neck

Supports the head and permits it to move. Also called cervical region.

Cervical region

Supports the head and permits it to move.

Trunk

Also called the torso

Torso

Also called the trunk

chest, abdomen, pelvic region

The trunk region includes...

Chest

Also called the thorax

Thorax

Also called the chest

Mammary region, sternal region, axillary region, vertebral region

Regions included in the thoracic region

Breasts

Also called the mammary region

Mammary region

The region name for the breasts

Armpits

Called the axillary region

Axillary region

The region name for the armpits

Mammary glands

INSIDE the breasts

Navel

Also called umbilicus

Umbilicus

Also called the navel

Cullen's sign

Bruise thing in/on/near the belly button associated with intra-abdominal bleeding (peritoneal bleeding, or more rarely, retroperitoneal bleeding)

Pubic area, perineum, lumbar region, sacral region, gluteal region

Pelvic region includes which regions?

Pubic area

Covered with hair in sexually mature persons

Perineum

The region containing the external sex organs and the anal opening

Lumbar region

Small of the back.

Sacral region

Tail

Gluteal region

Buttocks

Natal cleft

Midline of buttocks

Buttocks

Common site for intramuscular injections

Shoulder, upper arm, forearm, hand

The arm is divided into...

Elbow

Between the arm and forearm. Not listed as part of the arm.

Wrist

Between the forearm and hand. Not listed as part of the arm.

Palm, dorsum of hand, digits

The hand is comprised of...

Hip, Upper leg, knee, lower leg, foot

Lower extremity is divided into...

Deltoid region

Shoulder

Shoulder or deltoid region

A common site for intramuscular injections (but not the buttocks)

Upper arm

Brachium

Forearm

Antebrachium

Hands

manus

Antecubital fossa

Small depressed area on the front of the elbow

Antecubital fossa

Typically used to remove venous blood or to inject medications

Olecranal region

Area on the back of the elbow

Front of the hand

Palm

The back of the hand

Dorsum of hand

Fingers

Digits

Upper leg

Thigh or femoral region

Kneecap

Patellar region

Back of the knee

Popliteal fossa

Lower leg

crural region

Shin

Prominent bony ridge on the front of the lower leg

Calf

Muscular mass at the back of the lower leg

Ankle

Junction between the leg and foot

Heel, plantar surface, dorsum of foot, digits

The foot is composed of...

Heel

At the back of the foot

Sole

Plantar surface (at the bottom of foot)

Top of foot

Dorsum of foot

Toes

Digits of foot

Posterior body cavity, ventral body cavity

Two principal body cavities

Cranial cavity, vertebral canal

The posterior body cavity includes...

Cranial cavity

Houses the brain

Vertebral cavity

Houses the spinal cord and related structures

Thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity

The ventral body cavity includes which cavities?

Diaphragm

What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?

Parietal layer

The part of the serous membranes associated with the internal surface of the body wall.

Visceral layer

The part of the serous membranes associated with the external surface of the organs

Lubricating serous fluid

Between the visceral and parietal layers of the serous membranes there is a serous cavity filled with...

No

Are organs inside the serous cavity? Think of the hand and the balloon.

Mediastinum

A median space in the thoracic cavity which contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several major blood vessels that connect with the heart.

the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several major blood vessels that connect with the heart.

The mediastinum contains...

Pericardium

A two-layered serous membrane (and an outer fibrous layer) that encloses the heart

Parietal pericardium

The outermost serous layer of the pericardium (and its associated fibrous layer)

Pericardial sac

Another name for the parietal pericardium

Visceral pericardium

The external surface of the heart

Epicardium

Another name for the visceral pericardium

Pericardial cavity

The potential space between the parietal and visceral pericardia and it contains lubricating serious fluid.

Serous fluid

Like lotion on our hands, it keeps us from making noise and generating heat when our organs touch each other. Saves us from organ friction.

Pleura

The two-layered serous membrane that lines the lungs

Parietal pleura

The outer layer of the pleura. Firmly attached to the chest wall and superior surface of the diaphragm

Visceral pleura

The inner layer of the pleura. The external surface of the lungs

Pleural cavity

The narrow, moist, potential space between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Contains lubricating serous fluid.

Imaginary

The line between the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity

Between the superior aspects of the hip (pelvic) bones

Where is the imaginary line drawn? (The line that separates the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity)

Peritoneum

A moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

Parietal peritoneum

Lines the internal walls of the abdominopelvic cavity

Visceral peritoneum

Ensheathes the external surface of most digestive organs

Peritoneal cavity

The potential space between these serous membrane layers in the abdominopelvic cavity. Contains lunbricating serous fluid. A SMALLER enclosure within the abdominopelvic cavity.

Kidneys, pancreas, duodenum, ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, bladder

Abdominal organs in the abdominopelvic cavity but NOT in the peritoneal cavity

Peritoneal lavage

A diagnostic test in which rinse solution is inserted and then removed from the peritoneal cavity to detect traumatic damage.

Abdominopelvic quadrants

Right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

Strep throat, infected hip, pneumonia, or other things

Things that can make your belly hurt.

Oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, middle ear cavities

In addition to the large ventral and posterior body cavities, there are several small cavities in the head:

Buccal cavity

Another name for oral cavity

Mucous membranes

Membranes that line cavities that open to the outside of the body

Respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary tract, reproductive system

Mucous membranes line the:

McBurney's point

The extremely painful spot on the abdomen when someone has acute appendicitus.

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