Finals 2

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The geologically oldest mountains in North America are

the Appalachians

The Indian peoples of the New World

were divided into many diverse cultures speaking more than two thousand different languages

The Iroquois Confederacy remained a strong political and military influence until

The American Revolution

Among the important forces that first stimulated European interest in trade and discovery was

the Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia

Among the most important American Indian products to spread to the Old World were

foodstuffs such as maize, beans, and tomatoes

The primary staples of Indian agriculture were

maize beans and squash

the number of Indians in North America at the time of Columbus arrived was approximately

twenty million

Before Columbus arrived, the only Europeans to have temporarily visited North American were

the Norse

The Portuguese were the first to enter the slave trade and establish large-scale plantation using slave labor in

the Atlantic sugar islands

Much of the impetus for Spanish exploration and pursuit of glory in the early 1500's came from Spain's recent

national unification and expulsion of the Muslim Moors

A crucial political development that paved the way for the European colonization of America was

the rise of the centralized national monarchies such as that of Spain

The primary reason for the drastic decline in the Indian population after the encounter with the Europeans was

the Indians' lack of resistance to European diseases such as smallpox and malaria

Cortés and his men were able to conquer the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán partly because

the Aztec ruler Montezuma believed that Cortés was a god whose return had been predicted

The primary early colonial competitor with Spain in the New World was

Portugal

The belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good is called

the Black Legend

Ferdinand and Isabella

Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World

Cortés and Pizarro

Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations

Lake Bonneville

Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake

Días and da Gama

Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast

Columbus

Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents

Malinche

Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés

Montezuma

Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors

Hiawatha

Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy

Tenochtitlán

Wealthy capital of the Aztec Empire

St. Augustine

Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory

John Cabot

Italian born navigator sent by English to explore North America coast in 1498

Junipero Serra

Franciscan missionary who settled California

After decades of religious turmoil, Protestants finally gained permanent dominance in England after the succession to the throne of

Queen Elizabeth I

Imperial England and English soldiers developed a contemptuous attitude toward "natives" partly through their colonizing experiences in

Ireland

England's victory over the Spanish Armada gave it

dominance of the Atlantic Ocean and a vibrant sense of nationalism

At the time of the first colonization efforts, England

was undergoing rapid economic and social transformations

Many of the early Puritan settlers of America were

uprooted sheep farmers from eastern and western England

England's first colony at Jamestown

was saved from failure by John Smith's leadership and by John Rolfe's introduction of tobacco

Representative government was first introduced to America in the colony of

Virginia

One important difference between the founding of the Virginia and Maryland colonies was that

Virginia was founded mainly as an economic venture, while Maryland was intended partly to secure religious freedom for persecuted Roman Catholics

After the Act of Toleration in 1649, Maryland provided religious freedom for all

Protestants and Catholics

The primary reason that no new colonies were founded between 1634 and 1670 was

the civil war in England

The early conflicts between English settlers and the Indians near Jamestown laid the basis for

the forced separation of the Indians into the separate territories of the "reservation system"

In colonial English-Indian relations, the term "middle ground" referred to

the cultural zone where Indians and whites were forced to accommodate one another by shared practices that included intermarriage

After the defeat of the coastal Tuscarora and Yamasee Indians by North Carolina in 1711-1715

the powerful Creeks, Cherokees, and Iroquois remained in the Appalachian Mountains as a barrier against white settlement

Most of the early white settlers in North Carolina were

religious dissenters and poor whites fleeing aristocratic Virginia

The high-minded philanthropists who founded the Georgia colony were especially interested in the causes of

prison reform and avoiding slavery

Powhatan

Indian leader who ruled tribes in the James River area of Virginia

Raleigh and Gilbert

Elizabethan courtiers who failed in their attempts to found New World colonies

Roanoke

The failed "lost colony" founded my Sir Walter Raleigh

Smith and

Leaders who rescued Jamestown colonists from the "starving time"

VirginiRolfea

Colony that established a House of Burgesses in 1619

Maryland

Founded as a haven for Roman Catholics

Lord De La Warr

Harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish tactics" against the Indians

Jamaica and Barbados

British West Indian sugar colonies where large-scale plantations and slavery took root

Lord Baltimore

The Catholic aristocratic who sought to build a sanctuary for his fellow believers

South Carolina

Colony that turned to disease-resistant African slaves for labor in its extensive rice plantations

North Carolina

Colony that was called "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit"

James Oglethorpe

Philanthropic soldier-statesman who founded the Georgia colony

Elizabeth I

The unmarried ruler who led England to national glory

Jamestown

Riverbank site where Virginia Company settlers planted the first permanent English colony

Georgia

founded as a refuge for debtors by philanthropists

The principal motivation shaping the earliest settlement in New England was

religious commitment and devotion

Compared with the Plymouth Colony, the Massachusetts Bay Colony was

larger and more prosperous economically

One reason that the Massachusetts Bay Colony was not a true democracy is that

political offices were dominated by the clergy

The most distinctive feature of the Rhode Island Colony was that

it enjoyed the most complete religious freedom of all the English colonies

Before the first English settlements in New England, Indians in the region had been devastated by

intertribal conflicts caused by disputes over hunting grounds

The Indian tribe that first encountered the Pilgrim colonists in New England were the

Wampanoags

The Puritan missionary efforts to convert Indians to Christianity were

weak and mostly unsuccessful

King Philip's War represented

the last major Indian effort to halt New Englanders' encroachment on their lands

The primary value of the New England Confederation lay in

providing the first small step on the road to intercolonial cooperation

The event that sparked the collapse of the Dominion of New England was

the Glorious Revolution in England

the Dutch Colony of New Netherland

was harshly and undemocratically governed

The short-lived colony conquered by Dutch New Netherland in 1655 was

New Sweden

William Penn's colony of Pennsylvania

actively sought settlers from Germany and other non-British countries

Besides Pennsylvania, Quakers were also heavily involved in the early settlement of both

New Jersey and Delaware

The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

had more ethnic diversity than either New England or the southern colonies

Martin Luther

German monk who began Protestant Reformation

John Calvin

Reformer whose religious ideas inspired English Puritans, Scotch Presbyterians, French Huguenots, and Dutch Reformed

Massasoit

Wampanoag chieftain who befriended English colonists

Plymouth

Small colony that eventually merged into Massachusetts Bay

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Colony whose government sought to enforce God's law on believers and unbelievers alike

John Winthrop

Promoter of Massachusetts Bay as a holy "city upon a hill"

Great Puritan Migration

Mass flight by religious dissidents from the persecutions of Archbishop Laud and Charles I

General Court

Representative assembly of Massachusetts Bay

Puritans

Dominant religious group in Massachusetts Bay

Quakers

Religious group persecuted in Massachusetts and New York but not in Pennsylvania

Anne Hutchinson

Religious dissenter convicted of the heresy of antinomianism

Roger Williams

Radical founder of the most tolerant New England colony, Providence

King Philip

Indian leader who waged an unsuccessful war against New England

Peter Stuyvesant

Conqueror of New Sweden who later lost New Netherland to the English

William Penn

Founder of the most tolerant and democratic of the middle colonies, Pennsylvania

For most of their early history, the colonies of Maryland and Virginia

contained for more men than women

The primary beneficiaries of the "headright" system were

landowners who paid the transatlantic passage for indentured servants

The primary cause of Bacon's Rebellion was

the poverty and discontentment of many single young men unable to acquire land

African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680's when

planters were no longer able to rely on white indentured servants as a labor force

The culture that developed among the slaves in the English colonies of North America was

a combination of several African and American cultures

Political and economic power in the southern colonies was dominated by

wealthy planters

Because there were few urban centers in the colonial south

a professional class of lawyers and financiers was slow to develop

Puritan lawmakers in New England prevented married women from having property rights because

they feared that separate property rights for women would undercut the unity of married couples.

In New England, elementary education

was mandatory for any town with more than fifty families

The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to

the development of basic democracy in the New England town meeting

In contrast to the Chesapeake Bay colonist, those in New England

enjoyed longer lives and more stable families

The focus of much of New England's politics, religion, and education was the institution of

the town

The "Half-Way Covenant" provided

baptism but not "full communion" to people who had not had a conversion experience

Those people accused of being witches in Salem were generally

from families associated with Salem's burgeoning market company

English settlers greatly changed the character of the New England environment by

their extensive introduction of livestock

Chesapeake

Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements

Indentured Servants

Primary laborers in early southern colonies until the 1680s

Nathaniel Bacon

Agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage against Indians and colnial government

Governor Berkeley

Colonial Virginia official who crushed rebels and wreaked cruel revenge

Royal African Company

Organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business

Middle passage

Experience for which human beings were branded and chained, and which only 80 percent survived

Ringshout

West African religious rite, retained by African-Americans, in which participants responded to the shouts of a preacher

New York City slave revolt of 1712

Major middle-colonies rebellion that caused thirty-three deaths

Lees, Fitzhughs, and Washingtons

Some of the "FFVs" who controlled the HOuse of Burgesses in colonial Virginia

"New England conscience"

The legacy of Puritan religion among later generations of Americans

Harvard

The oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry

William and Mary

The oldest college in the south, founded in 1793

Half-Way Covenant

Helped erase the earlier Puritan distinction between the converted "elect" and other members of society

Salem Witch Trials

Phenomena started by adolescent girls' accusations that ended with the deaths of 19 people

Leisler's Rebellion

Small New York revolt of 1689-1691 that reflected class antagonism between landlords and merchants

The primary reason for the spectacular growth of America's population in the eighteenth century was

the natural fertility of the population

German settlement in the colonies was especially heavy in

Pennsylvania

The Scots-Irish eventually became concentrated especially in

the frontier areas

Compared with the 17th century, American colonial society in the 18th century showed

greater gaps in wealth and status between rich and poor

The most honored professional in colonial America was

clergyman

The primary source of livelihood for most colonial American's was

agriculture

Indians and African Americans shared in the common American experience of

creating new cultures and societies our of the mingling of diverse ethnic groups

an unfortunate group of involuntary immigrants who ranked even below indentured servants on the American social scale were

convicts and paupers

The "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among the ports of

New England, Africa, and the West Indies

The passage of British restrictions on trade encouraged colonial merchants to

find ways to smuggle and otherwise evade the law by trading with other countries

Besides offering rest and refreshment, colonial taverns served an important function as centers of

news and political opinion

The Anglican Church suffered in colonial America because of

its poorly qualified clergy and close ties with British authorities

the 2 denominations that enjoyed the status of "established" churches in various colonies were the

Anglicans and Congregationalists

Among the many important results of the Great Awakening was that it

broke down sectional boundaries and created a greater sense of common American identity

A primary weapon used by colonial legislatures in their conflicts with royal governors was

using their power of the purse to withhold the governor's salery

Philadelphia

Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin

African-Americans

largest non-English group in the colonies

Scots-Irish

Group that settled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the British and other governmental authorities

Paxton Boys and Regulators

Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina

Patrick Henry

Eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights

Molasses Act

Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies

Anglican church

Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown

Jonathan Edwards

Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening

George Whitefield

Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies

Phillis Wheatley

Former slave who became a poet at an early age

Benjamin Franklin

Author, scientist, printer, "the first civilized American"

John Peter Zenger

Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press

Quakers

Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, criticized by others for their attitudes towards Indians

Baptists

Nonestablished religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening

John Singleton Copley

Colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain

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