Chp. 10 Bio test

39 terms by alg913

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virulent

disease-causing

transformation

transfer of genetic material from one cell to another

bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

deoxyribose

sugar in DNA

nitrogenous base

contains nitrogen and carbon atoms and is a base (accepts hydrogen atoms)

purines

adenine and guanine

pyrimidines

thymine, cytosine, and uracil

base-pairing rules

C to G, A to T

complementary base pairs

C-G, A-T

base sequence

order of nitrogenous bases on a chain

helicase

separate DNA strands by breaking hydrogen bonds

dna replication

DNA is copied in a cell before it divides

replication fork

y-shaped region that is created when 2 strands separate from each other

dna polymerase

add complementary nucteotides (found floating in the nucleus) to the original strands

semi-conservative replication

each of the new DNA molecules has kept one of the two original DNA strands

mutation

change in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule (can disrupt an important cell function)

ribonucleic acid

(RNA) Copied DNA. One strand, contains uracil

transcription

corresponding RNA strand forms

translation

RNA forms the protein

mrna

carries message to ribosome

trna

bonds to amino acids in the cytoplasm

rrna

makes ribosomes

protein synthesis

forming proteins based on DNA and carried out by RNA

ribose

sugar in RNA

rna polymerase

enzyme that binds to gene's promoter

promoter

specific nucleotide sequence of DNA when RNA polymerase binds and starts transcription

termination signal

specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene

genetic code

rules that relate how a sequence of nitrogenous basis responds to an amino acid

codon

3-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal

stop codons

certain sequences of nucleotides in mRNA

anticodon

three nucleotides on RNA that are complementary to the codons

genome

complete genetic content

chargof

1949. A-T, C-G, No U in DNA. Discovered DNA was a molecule.

griffith and avery

1900's. used BACTERIA viruent into a non-effected bacteria, in which the noninfected bacteria was then filled will virulent DNA and made you sick

hershey and chase

VIRUSES

watson and crick

1953. Proposed structure for DNA

nucleolus

what forms when RNA stays in the nucleus instead of moving to the cytoplasm?

nucleus

transcription takes place...

cytoplasm

translation takes place..

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