King Henry VIII
Which king of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church?
Spread protestantism, seize Spanish treasure
Encouraged by Queen Elizabeth, semi-piratical English buccaneers had these two goals.
This man was the most famous of Queen Elizabeth's buccaneers. He intercepted a Spanish gold-carrying vessel, then sailed around the world to avoid the Spanish fleet. When he returned to England, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth on his deck of his ship.
The site of England's first colonization efforts in the new world.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
What Englishman attempted to found the first English colony at Newfoundland?
It was too cold of a climate, and its founder, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, perished at sea during the early stages of the colonization effort
Why did England's colony at Newfoundland fail?
What was the site of England's second failed attempt to colonize the New World?
Sir Walter Raleigh
What Englishman founded the English colony at Roanoke?
After several false starts, the colony eventually disappeared without a trace.
What became of England's colony at Roanoke?
King Philip II
What Catholic King of Spain decided to attack the Protestant English?
The English employed swifter, more maneuverable, and more ably manned crafts
In what ways were the Englishmen better than the Spanish Armada?
A great storm known as the "Protestant Wind"
What crippled the Spanish Armada, leading to England's victory?
The signing of a peace treaty in 1604
How did peace finally come about between Spain and England after their conflict in the English Channel?
Naval dominance in the North Atlantic
What did the English gain in their defeat of the Spanish?
A strong, unified national state under a popular monarch; religious unity; and a vibrant sense of nationalism and national destiny
What characteristics did England display on the eve of its colonizing adventure?
England's population growth, economic depression, primogeniture laws, and puritans seeking religious freedoms
What events in England supplied colonial immigrants? (Name 4)
By joint-stock companies
How was the money needed to fund colonization efforts provided?
Thirst for adventure, for markets, and for religious freedom
Name 3 motives of the English to colonize.
Virginia Company of London
What joint-stock company funded Jamestown?
King James I
Who granted the charter to Jamestown?
Passage to the Indies; Gold
What were the two major motives for the foundation of Jamestown?
It provided them the same rights as Englishmen living in England
In what way was the Jamestown charter important to New World colonists?
Disease, starvation, and malnutrition
What perils did the "self-styled gentlemen" that colonized Jamestown face after they disembarked?
Captain John Smith
Who is known as the savior of Jamestown?
Captain John Smith had previously been taken captive by the Indians in a mock execution. Who was the leader of those Indians?
They wanted to show their strength, but also their will for peaceful relations
For what reasons did the Indians fake an execution of Captain John Smith?
Who "saved" Captain John Smith from execution?
What role did Pocahontas play in Colonist-Indian relations after Captain John Smith's mock execution?
Lord De La Warr
The colonists of Jamestown were heading back to England when they encountered another vessel under the control of this man.
He became their new governor, forced them back to Jamestown, imposed a harsh military regime, then undertook military action against the natives
What action did Lord De La Warr take after encountering the Jamestown colonists?
What group of Indians did the English encounter in the James River area?
Declare war against the natives
What was Lord De La Warr ordered to do in Virginia?
First Anglo-Powhatan War
What was the name of the first war between English colonists and Native Americans?
Marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe
What brought about peace after the First Anglo-Powhatan War?
What brought about peace after the Second Anglo-Powhatan War?
Banished Indians from White settlements
What were the terms of the peace treaty ending the Second Anglo-Powhatan War?
Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability
What were the "Three D's" that the Powhatans fell victim to?
Based on the desire for English goods, Native American tribes competed with one another over trading rights with the English, and the land required to obtain the goods that they would trade
In what ways did the English warrant Indian-Indian violence?
Who perfected Tobacco?
What served as the foundation of Virginia's prosperity?
Tobacco was so popular that it caused colonists to seek after ______ .
Tobacco's success led to the introduction of the plantation system in Virginia, and therefore, the need for fresh labor
What connection, if any, exists between tobacco, the plantation system, and fresh labor?
A Dutch warship sold twenty Africans to Virginia colonists
How were the seeds of North American Slave Trade planted in 1619?
House of Burgesses
What was the first "miniature parliament" to be established in Virginia?
He revoked the Virginia Company of London's charter to make Virginia a royal colony
Because James I was hostile towards Virginia, what action did he take?
Who founded Maryland?
To be a Catholic haven
Why was Maryland founded?
He gave large chunks of land to his Catholic relatives, leaving smaller estates for Protestants
How did Lord Baltimore distribute his colony's land?
What was the foundation of Maryland's economy?
White Indentured Servants
Who did the Maryland colonists depend on for labor?
Act of Toleration
What did the Maryland Catholics promote in their effort towards having their religious practices tolerated?
Religious tolerance among Protestants and Catholics; the death penalty for those that denied the divinity of Jesus
What did the Act of Toleration decree?
What formed the foundation of the West Indies economy?
What country colonized the West Indies?
Sugar required much more work and money to harvest than tobacco
How were tobacco and sugar different?
They imported African slaves
How did the West Indies colonists deal with the greater amount of work required to harvest sugar?
English colonists imported so many African slaves that the Africans outnumbered the English
Why, in the present day, are the West Indies predominantly black?
It denied fundamental rights to slaves and allowed slave masters to inflict vicious punishments for slight infractions
What did the Barbados Slave Code decree?
migrated to North America's southern colonies (especially Carolina)
Since sugar was so expensive to harvest, many smaller English farmers...
The farmers brought knowledge of the Barbados Slave Code to the Carolinas and lived by its decree
Why is the migration of farmers from the West Indies to the Carolinas important to African slaves?
similar to the Barbados Slave Code
Because many of the migrant farmers of the Carolinas originated from the West Indies, they adopted a slave policy...
Civil war in England
Why was colonization interrupted between 1629 and 1660?
King Charles I
What king of England dismissed parliament?
Who did parliament replace King Charles I with?
King Charles II
Who took the throne after Oliver Cromwell?
The Lords Proprietors
Who did Charles II grant control over the area that would become Carolina?
Eight of Charles II's court favorites
Who were the Lords Proprietors?
Export of foodstuffs to provision sugar plantations in the West Indies, and the export of non-English products such as wine, silk, and olive oil
What made up the economy of the Carolinas?
Colonists abducted Indians from inland and either forced them to work in Carolina as slaves or sold them to other colonies
Based on the experiences of many Carolina immigrants from the West Indies, describe the slave-trade system of Carolina.
What was the principle crop in Carolina?
Colonists purchased Africans familiar with rice and resistant to English diseases
How did rice being the principle crop of Carolina affect Carolina slave trade?
A "ragtag group" of immigrants from Virginia
Who founded North Carolina?
What term described the immigrants from Virginia that founded North Carolina?
What became North Carolina's principle crop?
They were resistant to authority and the control of the Church of England
For what reasons did colonists immigrate from Virginia to found North Carolina?
Democratic and independent-minded
Describe the mind-set of North Carolina settlers
North Carolina engaged in several battles with the Native Americans
What relations did North Carolina have with the Indians?
To act as a buffer colony
For what purpose was Georgia founded?
Who founded Georgia?
"The Charity Colony"
What was Georgia's nickname?
No; Unhealthy climate, demoralizing Spanish attacks, Early restrictions on black slavery
Was a plantation economy successful in Georgia? Give three reasons why or why not.
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
What colonies make up the "Plantation Colonies"?
Tobacco and rice
What are the major exports of the southern colonies?
Religious tolerance among Catholics and Protestants was fairly high, however the Act of Toleration in Maryland persecuted those who denied the divinity of Jesus
What was the state of religious toleration throughout the majority of the southern nations?
Tobacco "butchers" it, making the soil useless after several years of replanting
How does tobacco affect the soil it grows in?
They continue to push inward in search of land to grow tobacco on
How does tobacco's "soil butchery" warrant reaction from the colonists?
For what reasons did James Oglethorpe found Georgia?