Global History and Geography Mid-Term

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Provides students an opportunity to prepare for the 2011 mid-term exam.

Printing Press

This invention encouraged the spread of controversial religious ideas during the Age of the Reformation.

Johann Gutenberg

This man invented the printing press.

Manorialism

The economic system of the feudal age, centered around farming and agriculture.

Democracy

The political institution which allows the citizens to be involved in the decision making process of government.

Athenian Democracy

This city-state of ancient Greece is most credited with introducing democracy to Western Civilization

Rome

This empire declined due to political corruption, foreign invasion, economic inflation, and poor order of succession for rulers.

Crusades

This event accelerated the revival of commerce and cultural diffusion between Europe and the East.

Justinians Code and the 12 Tables

These legal codes represent Rome's greatest historical legacy.

Roman Catholic Church

The universal church of Europe during the Middle Ages

The Medieval Church

The most powerful institution of Medieval Europe.

Age of Exploration

This resulted in the rise of Western European culture in the Western Hemisphere

Niccolo Machiavelli

Author of the book "The Prince"

The Prince

This book's thesis promoted a political philosophy of "the ends justify the means". The leader should do whatever is necessary to achieve their goals.

Byzantine Empire

This civilization helped to preserve ancient Greek and Roman culture.

The Black Death

This event was accelerated due to trade routes within Europe.

Renaissance

This European era saw the rebirth of Greek and Roman culture.

Martin Luther

This German monk challenged the Roman Church's sale of indulgences.

Martin Luther

This religious man authored the 95 thesis.

The Magna Carta

This document signed by England's King John limited the power of the monarch.

Mercantilism

This economic system helped strengthen the absolute monarchs of Europe.

Mercantilism

This economic system promoted the growth of colonialism.

Mercantilism

This economic system promoted the development of a favorable balance of trade.

Adam Smith

The man authored the economic book entitled "The Wealth of Nations"

John Locke

This Enlightened philosopher authored the book Two Treatise of Government

The English Bill of Rights

This document helped end the Glorious Revolution and limit the power of the monarch.

Sparta

This ancient Greek city-state was politically a military dictatorship.

Reformation

This era in history saw the fragmentation of the Roman Catholic Church.

Hanseatic League

Water routes helped this group of Northern European cities establish trade and commerce.

Commercial Revolution

This era in history saw the expansion of trade and commerce in overseas markets.

Absolutism

The political system where government policies were determined by the monarch, with no regard to parliament or the people.

Louis XIV

This absolute monarch of France, built Versailles to control the nobles.

Feudualism

This political system of the Middle Ages was the result of the fall of Rome and the decentralized political environment.

Humanism

This Renaissance philosophy encouraged the individual qualities of people, and the growth of art.

Two Treatise of Government

This political treatise challenged the abusive authority of the kings and looked to preserve individual rights.

Baron de Montesquieu

This Enlightened philosopher promoted the separation of powers in government to avoid tyranny.

The Enlightenment

This period in European history used reason as a guide for human progress

The French Revolution

This turning point in Europe primarily caused by economic inequalities amongst classes, saw the transfer of power from the king to the people.

Galileo

Feared excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church, rejected the heresies of Copernicus.

Absolutism

The political system where kings and queens rule according to "God's law" and make all decisions of government.

Questioning Spirit

The individuals desire to challenge traditional views and thoughts about religion, science, politics and economics. Born out of the Renaissance, and contributed to the Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment.

The Columbian Exchange

The trade between the Western Hemisphere and the rest of the world that brought new foods and products to these regions.

Printing Press

Invented by Johann Gutenberg, increased the literacy rate throughout Europe.

Estates

The social division of France prior to the French Revolution.

Byzantine Empire

The empire born out of the Eastern Roman Empire that preserved Greek and Roman Culture.

Columbian Exchange

The global transfer of food, plants, and animals during the colonization of America.

Natural Rights of Man

The ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers which encouraged political revolution.

Byzantine Empire

The name given to the Eastern Portion of the Roman Empire following the fall of the west.

Potatoes

Brought to Europeans through the Columbian Exchange

Feudalism

A political system following the fall of the Roman Empire that created a rigid social class system.

French Revolution Causes

Bankruptcy due to wars, unequal taxation, inflation, and Old Regime abuses.

Enlightenment

An intellectual era which saw the belief that government decisions should be based on the laws of nature and reason.

Magna Carta

This document of 1215 limited the power of the English King John.

Hagia Sophia

A great architectural beauty and an important monument both for Byzantine and for Ottoman Empires. Once a church, later a mosque, and now a museum at the Turkish Republic,

Justinian's Code

Justinian Code, was the result of Emperor Justinian's desire that existing Roman law be collected into a simple and clear system of laws, or "code."

Commercial Revolution

The introduction of new laws and business institutions that promote the growth of trade.

Scientific Revolution

An era when individuals utilized observation, experimentation, inductive and deductive reasoning in search of the truth.

Roman Roads

These were utilized to unite the Roman Empire and provide the military easy access to parts of the Empire.

Twelve Tables

This is the earliest attempt by the Romans to create a CODE OF LAW

Homer

Writer of Ancient Greece

Glorious Revolution

This event saw England's parliament limit the power of the monarchy.

Feudal Contract

A relationship between the lord and vassal where common interests benefited both groups.

Manorialism

This economic system was a self sufficient agricultural system that followed the fall of the Roman Empire.

Roman Empire

A strong centralized political system that dominated much of the Mediterranean world of ancient times.

Religious Pluralism

The idea of religious diversity and the creation of new Christian denominations, that resulted from the Protestant Reformation.

Nation-state

This independent country is formed of a group of people who share a common language, culture, and history.

The Middle Passage

The voyage from Africa to the Americas which saw the transportation of over 20,000,000 slaves from Africa.

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