Chapter 11 Respiratory System

142 terms by littledebi 

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adenoids

lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx

alveoli

air sacs in the lungs

apex

upper portion of the lung

asymptomatic

without symptoms

base

lowest part of the lung, resting on the diaphragm

bronchi

windpipe, two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing air movement

bronchiole

one of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes

capillaries

the smallest of a body's blood vessels They connect arterioles and venules

diaphragm

the musculomebranous wall separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity

epiglottis

thin, leaf-shaped structure located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue; covers the entrance of the larynx when swallows

glottis

sound-producing apparatus of the larynx; two vocal folds and the intervening space

laryngalgia

pain in the larynx

laryngopharynx

the lower part of the pharynx

larynx

voice box; enlarged upper end of the trachea

mediastinum

mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs; contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi

nares

external nostrils

nasopharynx

part of the pharynx located above the soft palate

oropharynx

central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis

palatine tonsils

lymphatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces and pharynx

paranasal sinuses

hollow areas or cavities within the shull that communicate with the nasal cavity

parietal pleura

portion of the pleura that is closest to the ribs

pharynx

the throat; passageway for air from nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus

phrenic nerve

the nerve know as the motor nerve to the diaphragm

pleura

double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

pleural space

space that separates the visceral and parietal pleurae

pulmonary parenchyma

functional units of the lungs which have very thin walls that allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood

septum

wall dividing two cavities

sputum

substance coughed up from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea that is expelled through the mouth

thorax

chest; part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm

trachea

windpipe; a cylinder-shaped tube lined with rings of cartilage

visceral pleura

portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs

apnea

without breathing

bradypnea

slow breathing

cyanosis

bluish condition of the skin

dysphonia

difficulty in speaking

dyspnea

air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing

epistaxis

nosebleed; hemorrhage from the nose

expectoration

act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs

hemoptysis

expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs

hypercapnia

increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood

hypoxemia

insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood

hypoxia

deficiency of oxygen

Kussmaul respirations

very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with sever diabetic acidosis

orthopnea

respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position

pleural rib

friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space

rales

abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest

rhinorrhea

thin, watery discharge from the nose

rhonchi

rales or rattlings in the throat

stridor

harsh sound during respiration; high-pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages

tachypnea

abnormal rapidity of breathing

wheeze

whisling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway

coryza

inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes

croup

childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, tachypnea, inspiratory stridor, and laryngeal spasm

diphtheria

serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

pertussis

whooping cough;acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacterium

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynz

rhinitis

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose

sinusitis

inflammation of a sinus

tonsillitis

infammation of the palatine tonsils

asthma

paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane

bronchiectasis

chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung

bronchitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes

bronchogenic carcinoma

lung cancer; malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi

emphysema

chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls

empyema

pus in a body cavity

hyaline membrane disease

respiratory distress syndrome RDS of the premature infant; impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn

influenza

the flu; highly contagious viral infection of the repiratiory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection

lung abscess

localized collection of pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection

pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea

pleuritis (pleurisy)

imflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura

pneumonia

inflammation of the lungs

pneumothorax

collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity

pulmonary edema

swelling of the lungs caused by an adnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces

pulmonary embolism

obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus that dislodges from another location and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lungs

pulmonary heart disease

hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall; heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease

sudden infant death syndrome

crib death; completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant

tuberculosis

infectious desease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis tubercle bacillus and characterixed by inflammatory infilrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous necrosis in the tissues of the lungs

anthracosis

coal worker's pneumoconiosis; accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breating smoke or coal dust

absestosis

lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles

byssinosis

brown lung disease; lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp

silicosis

lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica dust, characterized by formation of small nodules

bronchoscopy

examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube known as a bronchoscope

laryngoscopy

examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube

thoracentesis

involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space

tonsillectomy

removal of the palatine tonsils

tuberculin skin test

determine past or present tuberculosis infection present in the body

ABG

Arterial Blood Gas

AFB

acid-fast bacillus

AP

Anteroposterior

ARD

acute respiratory disease

ARDS

ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

ARF

acute respiratory failure

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CO2

Carbon Dioxide

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CXR

chest x-ray

DPT

diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

IPPB

intermittent positive pressure breathing

LLL

left lower lobe (lung)

LUL

left upper lobe (of lung)

PA

Posteroanterior

PaCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PaO2

partial pressure of oxygen

PCP

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

PFT

pulmonary function test

PPD

purified protein derivative

R

respiration

RDS

respiratory distress syndrome

RLL

right lower lobe (of lung)

RML

right middle lobe of lung

RUL

right upper lobe (of lung)

SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome

SOB

shortness of breath

T&A

Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy

TB

Tuberculosis

TPR

temperature, pulse, respiration

TST

tuberculin skin testing

URI

upper respiratory infection

alveol/o

alveolus

bronch/o

bronchus

bronchiol/o

bronchus

-ectasis

stretching or dilatation

epiglott/o

epiglottis

laryng/o

larynx

nas/o

nose

orth/o

straight

pector/o

chest

pharyng/o

pharynx

phren/o

pleura

pne/o

breathing

pneum/o

lungs; air

pneumon/o

lungs; air

pulmon/o

lungs

rhin/o

nose

-scope

an instrument used to view

sinus/o

sinus

thor/a

chest

thorac/o

chest

trache/o

trachea

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