The aortic arch begins at the second sternocostal joint and extends to ____.
The most proximal aspect of the aorta is where the _______ _______ originate.
The most proximal (1st) branch of the arotic arch is the _____ artery.
The lowest diagnostic accuracy rate for thoracic aortography is when assessing ______.
A ______ is most useful in diagnosing aortic valve pathology.
An _______ chest x-ray is recommended as a preangiographic clinical examination for thoracic aortography.
The ______ artery is the most desireable approach for thoracic aortography.
close end hole
Employing a pigtail multiside-hole catheter with ____ ____ ____ reduces catheter recoil.
A minimum of ____ml of contrast medium is recommended to visualize the aortic arch.
For contrast medium injection during a thoracic aortogram, the catheter should be positioned at the level of the ______ ______.
The filming rate for thoracic aortography is fastest during the first ___ seconds.
The recorded death rate for thoracic aortography is about ____ percent.
The largest percentage of deaths for thoracic aortography is attributed to ______ ______.
An ____ (pt body position) is employed to demonstrate patient ductus arteriosus.
Most aortic aneurysms occur in the ______ ______.
The arotal bifucation is located around ____.
Vessels of the leg including trifurcation are located below the ______.
Aortoiliofemoral (AIF) is used to evaluate _____ _____.
stepping table or tube, pigtail cath, power injector, and DSA
Equipment used to evaluate lower extremities include what?
Angiographic exams of the upper extremity are usually _______ and idications are often associated with ______.
atherosclerosis, AVMs, and tumors
Lower extremity studies are commonly performed for what THREE conditions?
The renal artery arises around which lumbar vertebra?
Angiography of the cerebral arteries provides definitieve proof of vascular abnomalities and mapping of diseases with the use of ______.
circle of willis
Most aneurysms of the brain are found where?
The circle of willis can only be seen with which imaging modality?
pigtail, cerebral catheter (H1, JB1, Sims), and power injector
What equipment is used for angiography of the cebral arteries?
MRA and CT are ______ and safer and are increasingly becoming popular methods with regard to ________.
aneurysms, tumors, AVMs, and vascular norrowings
Exams of the liver and spleen are done with what indications?
liver & spleen
The portal vein is used for acces in studies regarding what two organs?
blunt force trauma, and dissection
What are the common causes of thoracic aortography?
aortic arch; ascending, transverse, descending and major vessels of the aorta
Thoracic aortography includes the visualizing of what?
aneurysm, innsufficiency, stenosis, malformations, coarctation
What are the indications for thoracic aortography?
pigtail, power injector, & rapid film rate
Thoracic aortography includes the use of what equipment?