the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
a condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences.
a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
racial or cultural prejudice
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
a political system governed by a few people
an autocracy governed by a ruler who usually inherits the authority
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
system in which one set of goods or services is exchanged for another
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
market-based economic system with limited government involvement
Farm crop raised to be sold for money
farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing
When a farmer makes more than enough food for just his family, and uses the surplus for trade.
relating to a social system in which the mother is head of the family
Relating to a social system in which the father is head of the family
based on a man's family line
based on a woman's family line
marriage to several people at the same time
belief in many gods
(Roman mythology) founder of Rome
the group of people who ruled Rome before Romans revolted
one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic
a ruler who is unconstrained by law
a large military unit
a member of the aristocracy
of the common people of ancient Rome
a person who dies for a cause
hired foreign soldiers
fought with Rome in the Punic Wars, had the great general Hannibal but was later defeated
large farming estates in ancient Rome
believed basic cause of Rome's problems was decline of small farmer. urged council of plebs to pass bill that took land away from large landowners and give it to landless romans. killed for this thought. opened doors to more instability and violence
included Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar. Is a government by three people with equal power. Crassus was killed. Caesar became dictator
Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. Ocatvius took over and Replic was over. entered Pax Romana with Octavius.
slave, trained as a gladiator, who led a rebellion against the roman army for slave freedom- he was killed after two years
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain (55), crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey (48), pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen (47), returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life (45). On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself.
Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
One of Caesar's generals, Falls in love with Cleopatra, He and Cleopatra declare war on Rome in 31 BC which they lose, member of second triumvirate.
statesman of ancient Rome who (with Cassius) led a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar (85-42 BC)
beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt, She was an Egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicide with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
son-in-law of Augustus who became a suspicious tyrannical Emperor of Rome after a brilliant military career (42 BC to AD 37)
Only ruled for four years, mentally unstable. He had an affair with his sister and named them both as Gods. He also named his horse a consul.
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
Roman emperor after Caligula, an intelligent and scholarly man who conquered Britain. It is believed that his wife, Agrippina, poisoned him with tainted mushrooms
British queen who tried to rebel against the Roman army
Germanic barbarian leader who ended the western Roman Empire in 476 and became the first barbarian ruler of Italy (434-493)
"Romanized"and organized the empire- built bridges, roads, and aqueducts, ruled during the height of the Pax Romana, Built wall across Britain, strengthened borders
The area that is now France. Caesar conquered to bring the area under Roman control.
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
The Roman governor of Judea. Although he found Jesus guilty of nothing, he sentenced him to death by crucifixion.
in ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights
Laws of the 12 Tables
12 publicly displayed tablets that had listed the rights of the Ancient Roman citizens for all to see
Latin for "first citizen." Augustus and other Roman emperors gave themselves this title to distinguish themselves from Hellenistic monarchs
Bread and Circus
Free shows where romans could also receive free food
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
the Roman General who crushed the revolt in Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and destroyed Solomon's Temple.
(78- 81 AD) completed colosseum [started by Augustus]. During his reign Mt. Vesuvius erupted, destroying Pompeii and Herucleum. Also, another fire in Rome, the second.
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God's command.
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
the whole body of the Jewish sacred writings and tradition including the oral tradition
moral code of laws, written by God and given to moses
four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruled by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Justinian's wife; helped him run the empire
princess of Kiev; first Kievan convert to Christianity, but not until her grandson Vladimir did it spread
a conventional religious painting in oil on a small wooden panel
Russian word for Caesar
a landowning noble of Russia
a separation between the two branches of Christianity
Justinian's top general who reconquered much of Africa
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
the arena where chariot races and animal fights were held
Blue Team v. Green Team; both sides were angry at the government for how harshly prefect dealt with a previous revolt at the Hippodrome; Justinina dismissed that prefect but the mob was not happy; the crowded into the Hippodrome and claimed Beliasarius as new emperor-- troops broke in and 30,00 were killed
Wrote two histories of Byzantine Emperor Justinian's rule. One good and sponsored by Justinian, one bad and secret.
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
In the 1400s the capital of Russia was changed from Kiev to this
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)
a Russian prince who collected taxes for the Mongols, fought off enemies, and put down peasant riots. He was sainted after his death.
Ruler of Kiev who converted to and spread Christianity
made tax collector for helping put down Russian revolts against the Mongols; ruled Moscow in 1320s
Yaroslav the Wise
Vladimir's son who arranged political marriages, trading alliances, legal code, and built churches, and built the first library; split Kiev between his sons
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Muslim name for the one and only God
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
One of the 5 pillars (giving to poor/charity)
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
(Islam) a fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during a Islamic month
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
greatest physician of the Muslim world. told them to place hospitals in cleaner air to recover faster.
Invented Algebra; Muslim
Wrote history of persia, "Kings book of Kings" 60,000 vereses
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
5 main rules that a Muslim must follow and live by
the fourth caliph of Islam
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus
The second long dynasty of the Muslim Empire. They claimed descent from Abbas, eldest uncle of Muhammed. Their reign was most firmly established and the court at Baghdad most splendid under Haroun-al-Raschid, the Caliph described in the Arabian Nights, and his son Mamun.
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
capital of Muslim Spain, an economic center, hundreds of workshops, culture and learning flourished there
the group of Muslims from North Africa who conquered Spain in the eighth century
a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent
a mountain range extending 1500 miles on the border between India and Tibet
is the highest mountain on earth; in the Himalayas
a mountain range extending west of the Himalayas
gap in the Hindu Kush mountains which may have been used by migrants from the north of India
the "prized" area in India with its fertile and well watered lands that surrounds India's most holy of rivers
India's longest desert that runs along India/Pakistan border
rainy season in southern Asia & India when the southwestern monsoon blows, bringing heavy rains
The earliest Indian civilization, dating back to 2500bc, began in the valley of this river in the northwestern part of the subcontinent of south Asia
India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh
River that begins in Tibet, flows through northeast India and Bangladesh, joining with the Ganges to empty into the Bay of Bengal.
A high area of land at the center of the Indian subcontinent.
low lying hills
In Hindu belief, a person's essential self
the world soul
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179)
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
in Hinduism he was the universal soul, and in the trinity of gods in Hinduism he was the Creator
A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
A Hindu epic written in Sanskrit that describes the adventures of the king Rama and his queen
The kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Aryan north. (185)
founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
This man was the greatest leader of the Mughal Empire in India. He was known for his tolerance of all people
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
the last Mughal ruler. Strict Muslim. Overthrows Shah Jahan, expnad India through warfare. Persecutes the Hindus.
caste classes: priests, warrior class, farmer and merchant class, laborers and untouchables; birth determines occupation
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Buddha's original name
4 Noble Truths
Core of Buddha's doctrine; all life involves suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, elimination of desire brings the end to suffering, and disciplined life conducted in accordance with the Eightfold Path brings elimination of desire
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering; the middle way
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
most common themes in buddhist art and are the subject of sermons and popular religious texts in all theravada societies
Buddhist shrine that is shaped like a dome or mound
a religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics.
an extreme aesthetic who founded the religion Jainism and thought of several Hindu concepts, such as karma, in a very concrete way
A sect of Buddhism that offers salvation to all and allows popular workship.
A sect of Buddhism focusing on the strict spiritual discipline originally advocated by the Buddha.
First civilization of Indian subcontinent; emerged in Indus River valley
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
a writing system developed by the Aryans
A period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth
Indian empire founded by Chandragupta, beginning with his kingdom in northeastern India and spreading to most of northern and central India
He founded India's first empire. He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India.
grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
title for the local Hindu rulers who left in charge by the sultans
Chandra Gupta II
Further expanded the empire and strengthened its economy. His reign was a period of prosperity. Gupta Empire reached its height under his rule.
the most common language of modern day India
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.
Rulers who controlled most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
in Hinduism, the monkey god and helper of Rama Flying Monkey who saves Sita from Ravana often worshipped as a protector
A Mughal emperor who continued his father's religious tolerance but clashed with the rebellious Sikhs.
Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666)
Shah Jahan's wife who had a building named after her (Taj Mahal) , as he was only passionate about her and beautiful buildings
Hindu belief in nonviolence & reverence for all