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Some key terms about World War 1

Otto von Bismarck

Prime Minister of Prussia, and later Germany - master manipulator, wanted to unify Germany so he caused a war

Franco-Prussian War

War between France and Prussia and was the real cause of WW1 and WW2 - Prussia wins

Indemnity

a war debt - in this case, the French war debt from Franco-Prussian war (5 billion gold francs) - also in this case, the german war debt for WWI

France's "To Do List"

1) pay insane war debt (DONE)
2) save country from economic collapse (DONE)
3) regain Alsace-Lorraine from Germany (NEED TO DO)
4) REVENGE (NEED TO DO)

Revanchism

Comes from revanche, the french word for revenge. Applies to a country who wants to recapture lost territories, etc.

MANIA

Militarism
Alliances
Nationalism
Imperialism
Assassination

KNOW WHICH COUNTRY IS IN WHICH ALLIANCE

STUDY MAP!!!!!!!

Francis Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria-Hungary - heir to throne

Gavrillo Princip

Assassinated Archduke, part of Black Hand, Serbian nationalist

Black Hand

Serbian nationalist group who wanted to separate Bosnia from Austria-Hungary to join Serbia

Diplomacy

negotiation between nations

Triple Alliance

Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary

Triple Entente

France, Great Britain, Russia

pre-war alliances

Triple Alliance
Triple Entente
Great Britain and Belgium
Russia and Serbia

the "blank check"

after the assassination of the Archduke, Germany tells A-H that they have a blank check, meaning A-H can declare war on Serbia and do anything they want with Germany's support

outbreak of war

...declares war...
A-H on Serbia
Germany on Russia
Germany on France
later, GB on Germany (bc Belgium is invaded)

The Schlieffen Plan

Germany's plan to invade France through Belgium

First Battle of the Marne

when GB and France together beat Germany

"race to the sea"

when GB and France together went against Germany to build trenches around each other, which ended up extending straight out to the sea, to see which army could outflank the other (neither did)

stalemate

when neither side is winning - both sides losing

war on two fronts

germany fought war on two fronts with russia and france - schlieffen plan was to get rid of france quickly and then take care of russia

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, bulgaria, ottoman empire (not sure if we need to know ottoman empire)

Allied Powers

United Kingdom, France, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Monte-Negro, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Russia

trench warfare

when GB and France vs. Germany dug trenches to live/fight from for protection during the race to the sea

casualties

victims of war - the dead and injured

British Blockade

when Britain blockaded Germany's ports so nothing could get in or out

Battle of the Somme

the deadliest battle of WWI

Woodrow Wilson

American president during World War 1

u-boats

German submarines that enforced the blockade around Great Britain, which became unrestricted submarine warfare

the Lusitania

a British passenger ship torpedoed by a u-boat on May 7, 1915, killing 128 Americans among 1200 passengers

the Arabic Pledge

pledge issued by Germany after Arabic ship was sunk (2 americans dead), which promises that no more passenger ships will be sunk without warming and without providing for rescue of passengers - pledged on Sept. 1, 1915

the Sussex Pledge

pledge issued by Germany to try to only target passenger ships, to only sink ships after it has been confirmed that the ship was carrying war goods of weapons and to make sure all passengers and crew were safely evacuated

unrestricted submarine warfare

a policy that the Germans announced in January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters

Zimmerman telegram

a telegram fron the German secretary to a German minister in Mexico telling him to urge Mexico to attach the US if the US declared war on Germany, and Germany woud help Mexico win back its lost land in the states

1st Russian Revolution

in March 1917, the Czar is overthrown and the Provisional government is established, which is democratic

Wilson's War Message to Congress

he asked congress to declare war on Germany because they were killing innocent people, and they've disturbed the peace of the people in the US - the world must be made safe for democracy

"Over There"

a song sung by soldiers going into battle and to bring up American spirit, written by George M. Cohan in 1917

propaganda

the spreading of ideas that help a cause or hurt an opposing cause - each side waged a propaganda war in the US by picturing the other as savage beasts who kiled innocent civilians

selective service act

an act that required all men fron 21 to 30 to register for the military draft

draft

a law requiring people of a certain age to serve in the military

bureaucracy

a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials

Herbert Hoover

chosen to be head of Food Administration and relied on cooperation rather than force - food will win the war!

Liberty Bonds

bonds bought by Americans which lent their money to the government to pay for the war (they raised $21 billion, which is more than half of what was spent in total)

pacifists

someone who refuses to fight in any war because they think war is evil

socialists

someone who believes that people as a whole rather than private individuals should own all property and share profits from all businesses - they opposed war because they argued that the war benefited factory owners but not workers

the "Great Migration"

when people from other parts of the country migrated north to fill the jobs of the men who had gone to war - factory jobs - many African Americans migrated for the jobs

Vladimir Lenin

was the leader of the Bolsheviks, who were responsible for the communist revolution

Bolsheviks

led by Vladimir Lenin, it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WW1

2nd Russian Revolution

when Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over the Russian democratic government and turned Russia into a communist nation - in October/november 1917

Russian Civil War

when "white" anticommunists fought the "red" communists to decide how Russia would be governed

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

let Russia get out of WWI and made peace agreements between it and Germany - Russia had to give Germany large amounts of land

America's "unknown war"

when Wilson got involved in the Russian civil war by sending money to help the "white" anticommunists and also sending American troops to Russia to try and help overthrow the communist revolution

The Red Scare

when Americans were afraid of a communist revolution in America - when they followed A. Mitchell Palmer in apprehending suspected communists

German "Peace Offensive"

when German troops gathered together near Amiens for an all-out attack on the Allies, which they hoped would be the final push to end the war, but the British troops camped there held on as they were pounded by canons, lasted 2 weeks and germans moved on - then, they tried another place and German troops got through Allied lines along the Aisne river and reached the Marne river - this is when American troops entered the war

American Expeditionary Force

the American troops who went to help France and Great Britain win the war against Germany

John J. Pershing

commanded the AEF, and also, in 1916, sent American troops into Mexico to hunt down Francisco "Pancho" Villa

Harlem Hell Fighters

an American army unit which consisted of African Americans, and was attached to the French Army

armistice

an agreement to stop fighting

abdicate

to give up power or step down

epidemic

the rapid spread of a contagious disease among large numbers of people

Spanish Flu

the flu epidemic which spread in 1918, right after the end of WWI and killed over half a million Americans and over 30 million people in the world

Fourteen Points

a peace plan made by Wilson in January 1918 before the war ended which was ment to prevent international problems from causing another war - included having a League of Nations, ending secret agreements, freedom of the seas, free trade, a limit on arms, and support for national self-determination

self-determination

the right of national groups to have their own territory and forms of government

League of Nations

the fourteenth point in Wilson's peace plan which called for a general association of nations, whose jobs would be to protect the independence of all countries

the Big Four

the leaders of the most important Allied nations - Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

reparations

cash payments for losses suffered during the war

"Peace without victory."

Wilson's idea which opposed punishing the defeated powers

Treaty of Versailles

a treaty between the Allies and Germany which forced Germany to take full blame for the war, pay $300 billion ($75 billion today) of reparations, limit its size of army, forced it to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and made it give up its overseas colonies to the control of France and Britain

isolationist

someone who wants the US to stay out of world affairs

Henry Cabot Lodge

a man who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations in order to keep the US out of future war

sovereignty

the right of a nation to govern itself, and the ability of a state to govern its territory, free from control of its internal affairs by other states

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