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Cognitive Psychology

an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes

Mind

System That creates and controls mental functions such as perceptions, attention, memory, emotions etc.. and creates mental representations of the world.

Cognition

the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning

Reaction Time

the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it

Simple reaction Time

reacting to the presence or absence of a single stimulus (as a opposed to having to choose between a number of stimuli before making a response)

Choice Reaction Time

Reacting to one of two or more stimuli.

Savings Method

method of testing memory retentions by comparing numbers of trials needed to learn material with number of trials needed to relearn material at later time

Structuralism

an early school of psychology that attempted to identify the structures of the human mind

Analytic Introspection

A technique in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli.

Behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

Classical Conditioning

conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex

Operant Conditioning

conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response

Cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.

Information- Processing approach

traces the sequence or mental operations involved in cognition

Cognitive revolution

A Shift in psych from the behaviorist approach to an approach in which the main thrust was to explain behavior in terms of the mind.

Logic Theorist

computer program devised by Alan Newell and Herbert Simon that was able to solve logic problems

Physiological Approaches

Studying the mind by measuring the physiological and behavioral responses and explaining behavior in physiological terms

Behavioral Approaches

studying the mind by measuring a person's behavior and explaining this behavior

Memory Consolidation

The biological process through which memories are transformed from a transient and fragile status to a more permanent and robust state; according to most researchers, consolidation occurs over the course of several hours.

The main point in Donders Experiment

measure the amount of time it takes to make a decision.

In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press a button upon presentation of a light, they were engaged in a

simple reaction time task.

In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press one button if the light on the left was illuminated and another button if the light on the right was illuminated, they were engaged in a:

choice reaction time task.

Reaction time refers to the time between the ________ of a stimulus and a person's response to it.

presentation

Which of the following is a criticism of analytic introspection

It produces variable results from person to person.

Behaviorists believe that the presentation of ________ increases the frequency of behavior.

positive reinforcers

Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?

Tolman

A mental conception of the layout of a physical space is known as

a cognitive map

Which of the following events is most closely associated with the decline of behaviorism as an approach to psychology?

Skinner's publication of the book, Verbal Behavior

Your text describes the occurrence of a "cognitive revolution" during which dramatic changes took place in the way psychology was studied. This so-called "revolution" occurred parallel to (and, in part, because of) the introduction of:

computers.

According to your text, the behavioral approach to the study of the mind involves:

measuring the relation between stimuli and behavior.

The process during which information is strengthened and transformed into a strong memory that is resistant to interference is known as:

memory consolidation

Gais et al.'s research on the impact of sleep on memory consolidation illustrates which type of approach to the study of the operations of the mind?

Physiological

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