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social psychology

the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another

social neuroscience

an integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviors

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

social representations

socially shared beliefs - widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This helps us make sense of our world

hindsight bias

The tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome, one's ability to have forseen how something turned out, aka the "I knew it all along" phenonenon.

theory

an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events

hypothesis

a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events

field research

research done in natural, real-life settings outside the lab

correlational research

the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables

experimental research

studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one of more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant)

random sample

survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion

framing

the way a question or an issue is posed; it can influence people's decisions and expressed opinions

independent variable

the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates

dependent variable

the variable being measured that is not manipulated in experimentation

random assignment

the process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition

mundane realism

degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations

experimental realism

degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants

deception

in research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods or purposes

demand characteristics

cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected

informed consent

an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

debriefing

in social psychology, the postexperimental explanation of a study to its participants. It usually discloses any deception and often queries participants regarding their understandings and feelings.

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