Bio wB - Chapter 9

41 terms by mbrazo

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Aerobic

Describes a process that requires oxygen.

Anaerobic

Describes a process that does not require oxygen.

ATP

Adenosine tri-phosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups.

Chemical Bonds

The location where organisms store energy.

Photosynthesis

The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.

Autotrophs

Organisms that are able to perform photosynthesis and make organic compounds.

Metabolism

Using energy to build organic molecules or breaking down organic molecules in which energy is stored.

Cellular Respiration

The process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates.

Catalyst

Enzymes that assist in chemical reactions without being used up.

Decomposing ATP

ATP --> ADP + P + energy

ATP Synthase

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP.

Electron Transport Chain

A series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane.

Chloroplasts

An organelle that converts light energy into chemical energy.

Stroma

The space inside the inner membrane of a chloroplast.

Thylakoids

A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.

First stage of photosynthesis

Light waves hit stacks of thylakoids and the light energy is used to make ATP and NADPH.

Pigment

A substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color by absorbing different wavelengths of lights.

Chlorophyll

A green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and some bacteria, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis.

Carotenoids

A plant pigment that absorbs blue and green light and reflects yellow, orange, and red light.

Reaction Center

A region in a chlorophyll molecule where light energy causes the electrons to become "excited" and to move to a higher energy level.

Water Splitting

During the electron transport chain of photosynthesis an enzyme splits water and the electrons from they hydrogen atoms are used to pump H⁺ ions into the thylakoid. The remaining oxygen atoms combine to form O₂ gas and are released.

Hydrogen Ion Pump

A protein acts as a membrane pump and allows H⁺ ions into the thylakoid with the help of energy from electrons.

Making NADPH

Excited electrons combine with H⁺ ions and NADP⁺ to form NADPH in the electron transport chain.

Calvin Cycle

A biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP an NADPH.

Final Stage of Photosynthesis

ATP and NADPH are used to produce energy-storing sugar molecules from the carbon in carbon dioxide.

Carbon Fixation

The use of carbon dioxide to make organic compounds.

Dark Reactions

The reactions that fix carbon dioxide in photosynthesis.

Factors that affect photosynthesis

Light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature.

Products of photosynthesis

Glucose and oxygen.

Glycolysis

The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the forms of ATP.

First stage of cellular respiration

Glucose is broken down to 2 pyruvate molecules in the cytoplasm by glycolysis.

Second stage of cellular respiration

Aerobic Respiration, which consists of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.

Krebs Cycle

A series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvate into carbon dioxide, water, and electron carriers.

Products of the Krebs Cycle

The total yield of energy-storing products is one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH₂.

Electron Transport Chain

The second stage of aerobic respiration that occurs in the inner membranes of the mitochondria. Electrons pass through a series of molecules.

Products of the Electron Transport Chain

Up to 34 ATP and water molecules.

Fermentation

The breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen. Allows glycolysis to continue supplying a cell with ATP in anaerobic conditions.

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid.

Alcoholic Fermentation

Pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon compound and then ethanol.

Anaerobic Processes

Fermentation and glycolysis.

Aerobic Processes

Aerobic respiration, including the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.

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