The set of metabolic reactions occuring in the mitochondria of cells in which sugars are broken down and reasembled as adenosine triphosphate(ATP)
C6-H12-O6 + O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Catabolism of glucose is exergonic.
A catabolic process that leads to the partial degradation of sugars without oxygen (anaerobic)
The process of breaking down sugars to create ATP with the use of oxygen.
Are the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another. When there is oxidation, there is also reduction. The substance which loses electrons is oxidised. The substance which gains electrons is reduced.
The addition of an electron to another substance, require a donor and an acceptor. The negative charge of the electron REDUCES the positive charge of the atom.
Ex. To form salt, Sodium is oxidized and chlorine is reduced.
Xe- + Y --> X + Ye- (X is the reducing agent by reducing Y, Y is the oxidizing agent)
*energy must be added to pull an electron away from an atom.
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP. Electrons released from food are shuttled by NADH to the "top" of the chain, oxygen captures electrons at the "bottom" and combines with hydrogen to form water.
The decomposition (lysis) of glucose to PGAL and then to pyruvate after 2NAD+ take extra electrons and ADP becomes ATP. occuring in the cytosol.
Creates 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate
Krebs Cycle (citric acid cycle)
Pyruvate pairs with coenzyme A to create acetyl CoA, producing 1 NADH and 1CO2. The krebs cycle then accepts CoA and pairs it with oxaloacetate (OAA) to form a 3 carbon citric acid. Creates 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and CO2 is released (the carbon dioxide that you breath)
The process of extracting ATP from NADH and FADH2. When electrons bounce down the electron transport chain, they release energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
NADH makes 3 ATP, FADH2 only makes 2
Oxygen is the final acceptor on the electron transport chain. It accepts 2 electrons and binds with 2H+ to form water
Mechanism of ATP generation when energy is produced by the flow of H+ ions. Protein complexes along the electron transport chain pump hydrogen into the intermembrane space, changing the pH gradient between the matrix and intermembrane spaces. The H+ then flows back into the matrix through the channel protein, ATP synthase, and proton's movement generates energy for ATP synthase to make ATP
Substrate level phosphorylation
ADP obtains a phosphate group attached to a metabolic intermediate by a high-energy bond. the high reactivity of the bond in the metabolic intermediate enables the phosphate group to be transferred to ADP. however, most phosphate-containing metabolic intermediates do not contain high-energy bonds