Infancy: Social and Personality Development

93 terms by ericadallas

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healthy people 2020

what is a set of health objectives to improve health in the US over 10 years and

healthy people 2020

the goal of what is to increase the quality and number of years of healthy life and to eliminate health disparities

increased

has the amount of people that breast feed increased or decreased from 1998-2010

breast feeding

what are the following advantages for an infant related to:
-immunity from mom-Ab
-bonding
-immediately available-warm
-less likely to be overweight bc stop when full
-less likely to be a picky eater
-rarely causes constipation/diarrhea (smells better)
-has factor that promotes infant growth
-high IQ

breast feeding

what are the following advantages for a mother related to:
-free
-readily available
-encourages eating right
-weight loss (need 500 calories extra per day)
-no sterilization needed
-no contamination
-no menstruation for a long time

bottle feeding

what are the following advantages for an infant related to:
-allergies/metabolic disorder
-incase mothers is contaminated

bottle feeding

what are the following advantages for a mother related to:
-other parent can be involved
-gives more free time
-does not tie mom to baby
-easier to go back to work
-more socially acceptable
-doesn't interfere w couple's sex life
-doesn't dictate moms diet/eating style
-don't have to feel squeamish

at least a year

according to the AMA how long should a woman breast feed (but something is better than nothing)

black (least) and asian (highest followed by latino then white)

what ethnic group is least likely to breast feed and which is most likely

louisiana (least) and washington (most)

what state is least likely to have ever breast fed and which is most likely (NJ is in the middle)

breast feeding in the AA population

what is promoted through the following current research:
-Katherine Barber-African American Breastfeeding Alliance
-Shanda Lear-Lactation Institute and Breastfeeding Clinic

breastfeeding in the AA community

what are the following barriers to:
-no the norm in the community
-not a lot of factual/current data
-lack of spouse/peer support
-belief that it isnt possible to work when doing this
-only for white women
-no images of this in media
-overload of coupons/samples for formula

2-5 months

when do babies begin cooing (vowel sounds)

5-7 months

when do babies begin babbling, stringing sounds together

6 months

when do babies begin producing sounds only in languages they hear and deafness is found

6-12 months

when do babies begin expressive jargon-resembles intonation and sounds of adult speech, yet is meaningless in content. social interaction with parents

12 months

when do babie begin saying their first words

15-18 months

when do babies begin using words to express needs

18 months

when do babies begin using 2 word combinations

2 years

when do babies begin using phrases

baby talk

what is adult speech directed at infants that includes raising and lowering the pitch of one's voice

motherese

what is gramatically simple baby talk that adults use when talking to infant. use more commands and questions, less pronouns and verbs

that babies developed along the same guidelines

what was determined by studying new language in different cultures in american mothers that talk a lot to their babies versus Japanese and Somoan mothers that rarely talked to their babies

hearing loss

what is a common cause for speech delay where if at 2 they do not say more than 5 words

expressive

what is a common cause for speech delay and is characterized by examining motor, genetics, and idiopathic (just because)

receptive

what is a common cause for speech delay and is defined by children that can say word but can't identify a picture, (language doesn't match cognition)

associated cognitive delays

what is a common cause for speech delay and is seen by not understanding things

bad speech habits

what is a common cause for speech delay and is caused by parents that do not have good speech

good speech develoment

what are the following tips for:
-be a good listener
-talk naturally to the child
-model proper speech
-be specific of needs

first child speaks for the second

why do second children tend to speak later than first children

first three weeks

with children's social development when is there not much going on

fourth weeks

with children's social development when do they have direct actions toward adults and emotions start to show

2 month

with children's social development when is there lots of smiling, vocalization and animation towards mom

3 months

with children's social development when is there a need for social interactions firmly established

reciprocal interactions

what is the view of behavioral development that says that the parents and the child actively influence each other

attachment

what is the affectionate emotional bond between parent (or caregiver) and child, not just a need for survival

birth to 36 months

when is the most important time for attachment in a child's life

preattachment

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 0-3 months and is characterized by being interested in everyone, eventually distinguishes the caregiver from others

attachment in the making

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 3-6 months and is characterized by increase in smiling and vocalization to caregiver; clearly disseminates the mother from others

clear-cut attachment

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 6-12 months and is characterized by displaying separation distress and stranger anxiety; is clearly attached to the caregiver

goal-corrected partnership

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 12-24 months and is characterized by attempts to manipulate caregiver's behavior ; displays more complex interplay of social and emotional behaviors

attachment constant

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 2-3 years and is characterized by noticing impending departure, indicating a better understanding of the surrounding world

growing confidence

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 3-4 years and is characterized by beginning to accept mother's temporary abscence, plays with other children

less intense attach

what phase of infant attachment occurs at 4-10 years and is characterized by will still hold hand and still turns to parents in times of trouble

weakened attach

what phase of infant attachment occurs at adolescence years and is characterized by becoming attached to peers

attach bond still necessary

what phase of infant attachment occurs as an adult and is characterized by still turning to friends or loved ones in times of trouble

secure

what pattern of attachment occurs in 65-70% of children and is characterized by:
-stays close to parent
-uses parents as base to explore
-slightly distressed by the separation but receptive upon reunion
-prefers parent to strangers

avoidant

what pattern of attachment occurs in 20% of children and is characterized by:
-parent not a base of support
-NOT distressed by separation and avoids contact on reunion
-does not distinguish btwn strangers and parents for contact
-the mothers of these babies seemed to dislike or were indifferent to physical contact

ambivalent

what pattern of attachment occurs in 10% of children and is characterized by:
-distressed with parent
-intensely upset when separated but were ambivalent about reunion
-angered with caregiver and not comforted by strangers
-sought contact with mothers but simultaneously seemed to resist it

insecure-disorganized-disoriented

what pattern of attachment occurs in <5% of children and is characterized by:
-greatest degree of insecurity
-"afraid, dazed, confused"
-inconsistent behavior after reunion with parent
-seeks contact with them and then avoids the parent
-show very little emotion

9-12 months

when does separation, distress, and stranger anxiety peak around

yes

is the type of attachment influenced by child-rearing patterns predominant in a culture?

secure

by age 4 in a school setting what type of attachment is this:
-seek attention in positive ways.
-if they need teacher, they ask

avoidant

by age 4 in a school setting what type of attachment is this:
-wait passively to be noticed

ambivalent

by age 4 in a school setting what type of attachment is this:
-chronic whining and complaining
-seeks help more but is less happy with out come

avoidant

by high school what type of attachment is this:
-less supportive friends and more likely to be sexually active earlier

things get worse because the role of husband and wife becomes more tradiational, less free time and sex, decreased marital satisfaction, greater conflict

what changes occur in the relationship between the parents when the child is first born

daddy being involved with the new baby

what is the most important factor in maintaining marital satisfaction for both the man and woman when there is a new baby

mother

in the vast majority of families who is the primary caregiver

mother

infants during the first year tend to prefer who to anyone else

depressed

what type of moms showed more anger, irritation, and sadness towards infants and in turn these infants were fussier and cried more

caregiver, disciplinarian, playmate-teacher, disengaged

what are the 4 types of fathers

caregivers and playmates

what type of father is more educated and had more prestigious occupations, were better adjusted emotionally, and experienced fewer daily hassles than the disciplinarian and disengaged fathers

dads

there is an imbalance of the law in relationship to psychiatric research

non resident

40% of what type of dads have highly open, healthy, supportive relationships with the kids

american coalition for fathers and children

what organization is to help dads take action

mom is more verbal and wants to play educational games and dad is more undpredictable and likes to roughhouse

what is different about the way men and women play with young children?

dad starts to act more like mom

what happens in the way dad plays with young children when he is the primary caregiver

temperament

what is the person's inborn, characteristic way of responding to stimuli. style of behaving

easy

what type of temperament is this:
-typically in a good mood
-regular pattern of eating and sleeping
-adapts readily to new environment and new people

difficult

what type of temperament is this:
-often irritable
-irregular eating and sleeping habits
-withdraws from new people and adapts slowly to changes

slow to warm

what type of temperament is this:
-similar to difficult but not as extreme
-low activity level
-withdraws from unfamiliar situations
-reacts with a low level of intensity

easy (followed by no category, slow to warm, difficult)

what category do most babies fall into with temperament

no

does the category of temperament that a child falls into when they are a newborn correlate with what their future personality will be like?

yes

does the category of temperament that a child falls into when they are 1 year old correlate with what their future personality will be like?

goodness of fit

what is parent's demands and expectations are compatible with their children's temperament, abilities, and other characteristics (the more parents can adjust their style/expectations the better the relationship will be)

work with it

the most important point for parents to do is to do what with their child's inborn temperament instead of trying to change it

anger

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-fury
-resentment
-animosity

sadness

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-grief
-sorrow
-gloom
-melancholy

fear

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-nervousness
-apprehension
-dread

enjoyment

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-happiness
-joy
-bliss
-delight

love

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-acceptance
-trust
-devotion
-adoration

surprise

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-shock
-astonishment
-amazement
-wonder

shame

according to goldman what emotion is this:
-guilt
-embarrassment
-mortification
-humiliation

birth-3 months

when do children express the following emotions:
-distress
-pleasure
-disgust

3-6 months

when do children express the following emotions:
-delight
-wariness
-anger

6-9 months

when do children express the following emotions:
-fear
-anxiety
-shyness

9-12 months

when do children express the following emotions:
-stranger anxiety
-separation anxiety

12-18 months

when do children express the following emotions:
-elation
-security

18-24 months

when do children express the following emotions:
-shame
-defiance

smiling gets more attention and chronically angry gets avoided

how does an infant's emotional state affect the response she gets from others?

development of self

what is recognition of one's separatness from others as well as conceptual image of one's characteristic behaviors

around 18 months

when does a child begin to develop a sense of self

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