Primary Purpose of Infection Control
prevent the transmission of infectious disease
3 forms of Transmission
From pt. to dental professional
From dental professional to pt.
From pt. to pt.
Pathogens in oral or respiratory secretions:
Cold and flu viruses and bacteria
Hep B and C
Herpes simplex virus
General Routes of Transmission
-Direct Contact with pathogens (in saliva, blood, resp. secretions, or lesions)
-Indirect contract w/ contaminated objects or instruments
-Direct contact w/ airborne contaminates in spatter or aerosols
What 3 things must be present in disease transmission
1. Susceptible host
2. Pathogen w/ sifficient infectivity
3. Portal of entry where pathogen can enter host
(infection control alters 1 of these three)
Protective Attire and Barriers
Clothing: to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure to body fluids (Changed daily or when soiled )
Gloves: worn to prevent contact w/ blood, saliva or mucous membrane (Changed between pts. and can not be washed)
Mask and eyewear: wear when spatter and aerosolizes of blood and saliva are present (Change mask between pts or if they become soiled or wet; Eyewear must be cleansed between pts.)
When do we wash our hands?
Before and after treating each pt. and after touching objects or surfaces contaminated by blood or saliva
those that penetrate soft tissue or bone (forceps, scalpel, scalers, burs)
*None in radiology
those that contact, but do NOT penetrate soft tissue or bone.
Ex: film holders, mirrors, amalgam condensors
those that do not come in contact w/ mucous membranes
Ex: PID, exposure buttons, control panel, lead apron
Before Exposure: Treatment Area
-Cover w/ plastic all areas that are most likely to be touched
X-ray machine: tubehead, PID, control panel,exposure buttons
Dental chair: headrest, and chair adjustment controls
Work area: where x-ray supplies are placed during exposure
Lead apron: if contaminated it must be wiped w/ disinfectant between pts.
Before Exposure: Supplies and Equipment
All anticipated supplies and equipment must be prepared and sterilized
Film: should be dispensed from a central supply area into a coin envelope, plastic cup or sandwich bag
Film holding-devices: should be sterilized
Misc: cotton rolls, paper rowels, cup labeled w/ pts. name
Before Exposure: Patient Preparation
Chair Adjustment: position so that the pt. is seated upright. Adjust the height so that it is comfortable for radiographer.
Headrest Adjustment: supporting head so that the pts. upper arch is parallel w/ floor
Lead Apron: place and secure before any exposure
Misc: remove any of the pts. belongings (glasses, gum, dentures, tongue and lip rings)
Before Exposure: Dental Radiographer
Handwashing: wash w/ soap so that pt. can see you, or verbalize it.
Gloves: after washing, immediately put on gloves
Mask and Eyewear: no aerosols are created and so this is optional (CBC PROTOCOL IS TO WEAR THEM)
Film-holding Device: w/ gloved hands remove and assemble in front of pt.
Once gloved try to only touch covered surfaces and minimize what you touch
Drying of Exposed Film: dry w/ a paper towel to remove excess saliva
Collecting Exposed Films: place in a cup labeled w/ pts. name-Used to transport to darkroom (Do not touch w/ gloves)
Avoid scatter rad. by NOT placing them in the same room
Film Holding Devices: should go from covered working area to pts. mouth and back to covered working area
Interruptions During Exposure: when you leave the area you must take gloves off and wash, and then rewash and re-glove when returning.
Dispose of Contaminated Items: while still wearing gloves throw away cotton rolls, bwx tabs, bags etc. Also dispose of all plastic covers
Film-holding Devices: place film holder in designated area for contaminated instruments
Lead Apron: remove this once gloves have been removed
Surface Disinfectant: wipe any uncovered areas that were contaminated
Handling Exposed Film (slide 1)
-Bring cup from work area to darkroom
-Place paper towel down in dark room
-Place cup next to towel
-Put on gloves
-Turn off lights and secure door
-Take 1 film out of cup
-Open packet and slide out film, lead, and black paper .
Handling Exposed Film (slide 2)
-Dispose of foil
-Open black paper w/o touching the film and let film fall on the paper towel.
-Discard of black paper
-Once all film have been opened dispose of cup
-Remove gloves and wash hands
-Label a mount w/ pts. name and place films in once they are done processing.