The part of an enzyme or antibody where a chemical reaction occurs.
One member of a pair or series of genes that occupies a specific position on a specific chromosome
the building blocks from which proteins are constructed.
a triplet of nucleotide bases in transfer RNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon in messenger RNA during protein synthesis at a ribosome
A key energy-carrying molecule in biological systems. It is produced in the body through the process of cell respiration and in plants through photosynthesis
any chromosome other than a sex chromosome.
An organism that manufactures its own food from inorganic substances
the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
Carbon dioxide enters an open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase
hard, nonliving material that makes up the cell wall of a plant cell
Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
division of the cytoplasm
the loss of a part of DNA from a chromosome
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome
Electron Transport Chain
a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
the molecules of a mixture are seperated according to size, shape, and electrical charge
the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work