The temperature of 0 Kelvin.
Temperature at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure.
A phase change where a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid.
When a gas or vapor changes from directly into a solid.
A change where energy is absorbed.
A change of state from liquid to gas below the substance's boiling point.
A change where energy is released.
Change of state from a liquid to a solid.
State of matter in which materials have no definite shape and no definite volume.
Heat of Fusion
The amount of energy required to change 1 gram of a solid to a liquid.
Heat of Vaporization
Amount of energy required to change 1 gram of a liquid into a gas.
Energy of motion.
State of matter in which materials have no definite shape, but definite volume.
Change of state from a solid to a liquid.
A reversible physical change from one state of matter to another.
Result of force distributed over an area.
State of matter in which materials have definite shape and definite volume.
A phase change in which a substance changes from a solid directly to a gas.
Pressure caused by collisions of water vapor with walls of a closed container,
Phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid into a gas.
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Particles in a gas are in constant, random motion. The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles. Forces of attraction among particles in a gas can be ignored under ordinary conditions.
Behavior of Liquids
The volume of a liquid is constant because forces of attraction keep the particles close together.
Behavior of Solids
Particles vibrate around a fixed location.
Factors that affect gas pressure
Temperature, volume, number of particles.
Six Common Phase Changes
Melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and deposition.