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Absolute Zero

The temperature of 0 Kelvin.

Boiling

Temperature at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure.

Condensation

A phase change where a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid.

Deposition

When a gas or vapor changes from directly into a solid.

Endothermic

A change where energy is absorbed.

Evaporation

A change of state from liquid to gas below the substance's boiling point.

Exothermic

A change where energy is released.

Freezing

Change of state from a liquid to a solid.

Gas

State of matter in which materials have no definite shape and no definite volume.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of energy required to change 1 gram of a solid to a liquid.

Heat of Vaporization

Amount of energy required to change 1 gram of a liquid into a gas.

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion.

Liquid

State of matter in which materials have no definite shape, but definite volume.

Melting

Change of state from a solid to a liquid.

Phase Change

A reversible physical change from one state of matter to another.

Pressure

Result of force distributed over an area.

Solid

State of matter in which materials have definite shape and definite volume.

Sublimation

A phase change in which a substance changes from a solid directly to a gas.

Vapor Pressure

Pressure caused by collisions of water vapor with walls of a closed container,

Vaporization

Phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid into a gas.

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Particles in a gas are in constant, random motion. The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles. Forces of attraction among particles in a gas can be ignored under ordinary conditions.

Behavior of Liquids

The volume of a liquid is constant because forces of attraction keep the particles close together.

Behavior of Solids

Particles vibrate around a fixed location.

Factors that affect gas pressure

Temperature, volume, number of particles.

Six Common Phase Changes

Melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and deposition.

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