Chapter 19 Biology

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Lysogenic infection

process in which viral DNA bceomes part of a host cell's DNA.

Eubacteria

the larger of the two kingdoms of prokaryotes

chemautotroph

organism that obtains energy from inorganic molecules

toxin

substance produced by some bacteria that poisons host cells

prion

pathogen that causes disease in animals by forming a protein clump

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

coccus

spherical bacteria

chemoheterotroph

organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and a supply of carbon

antibiotic

compound that can destroy bacteria

virus

a particle of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids

prokaryote

organism consisting of one cell that lacks a nucleus

spirillum

spiral shaped bacterium

prophage

viral DNA that is embedded by the host's DNA

pathogen

disease causing agent

lytic infection

process in which a host cell bursts after being invaded by a virus

endospore

spore formed by bacteria when growth conditions become unfavorable

bacillus

rod shaped bacterium

binary fission

process in which a bacterium replicates its DNA and divides in half

obligate anaerobe

organism that can live only in an oxygen free environment

vaccine

preperation of weakened or killed pathogens

retrovirus

virus having RNA as its genetic material

capsid

protein coat of a virus

lytic

type of viral infection that causes the cell to burst

conjugation

exchange of genetic material in bacteria

Antibiotic Resistance

the ability of a microorganism to produce a protein that disables an antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell

asexual reproduction

nonsexual means of reproduction which can include grafting and budding

autotroph

an organism that uses energy to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic substances

bacteria

a single-celled, microscopic prokaryotic organism

epidemic

an outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads widely and rapidly

germ theory of disease

a set of criteria used to establish that a particular infectious agent causes a disease

heterotroph

an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating organisms or their by-products

host

animal or plant on which or in which another organism lives

microbe

a microorganism

parasitism

the close associatio of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is harmful to at least one

pandemic

an epidemic over a wide geographic area and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population

photosynthesis

the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy stored in organic molecules

sexual reproduction

the process where two cell fuse to form one hybrid

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