The largest phylum of gymnosperms, consisting of at least 600 species of conifers(Redwoods, Yew, Bristlecone Pine, Junipers), most are evergreens, and retain their leaves throughout the year
from the bark of the cinchona tree, is used to treat fever and relieves muscle spasm, also prevents malaria
A tall evergreen timber tree (Pseudotsuga menziesii formerly P. taxifolia) of northwest North America, having short needles and egg-shaped cones.
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
A curious plant of arid regions of southwestern Africa having a yard-high and yard-wide trunk like a turnip with a deep taproot and two large persistent woody straplike leaves growing from the base
2nd largest group of gynosperms, they have large cones and palmlike leaves, only about 130 species survive but this species thrived in the mesozoic era.
Nonvascular plants - examples are liverworms, hornworts, and mosses.
Anti-cancer drug found in the pacific yew that prevents depolymerization of microtubules.
A protective cap of gametophyte tissue that protects the immature capsule, and is shed when the capsule becomes mature.
A phylum of gynosperms that has only has 1 species,(Ginkgo Biloba) has dedoucious leaves that turn gold in autumn,, tolerates air pollution well.
A wetland moss genus(peat moss) that forms extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material known as peat. Has resistant phenolic compounds which it secretes that limit bacterial growth and in its cell walls that impede decay. There are about 400 billion tons of this which help stabilize global atmospheric CO2 concentrations
300 MYA, CO₂=200ppm dropped by a factor of 5 causing global cooling that resulted in widespread glacial formation., woody plants, cold, high O₂, formation of fossil fuels, the formation of the first very large trees, whisk ferns are living fossils from this peroid.
An embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients and a protective coat. Those plants having this can be divided into two groups: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Periwinkle plant derivative used as an antineoplastic drug (trade name Velban) that disrupts cell division by stopping microtube formation and is thus used to treat Lukemia
A stimulant added to look-alikes and diet pills, and found in herbs such as ma huang; has caused heart attacks, strokes, seizures, and death, especially combined with caffeine. Alos a decongestant
Green Algae that are the closest relatives of land plants. Shares 4 ultra structural features with land plants. (Rose Shaped Complexes,Peroxisome enzymes, Structurally same flagellated sperm, Formation of a phragmoplast.)
Alignment of cytoskeletel elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of the dividing cell.
An international initiative focusing on the deepest phylogenetic branching within the plant kingdom to identify and name the major plant clades.
A durable polymer mainly found in charophyceans that prevents the zygote from drying out.
A covering on the epidermis of many plants made out of polysters and waxes,helps waterproof the plant while at the same time providing some protection from microbial attacks,
Chemicals synthesized by plants that are the product of secondary metabolic pathways,usually poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting.
One of the 5 derived traits of plants, defined as localized regions of cell division at the tops of roots and shoots that conttinue thegrwth of plants throughout its lifetime.
Multicellular organs in which gametes are produced. Is one of the five derived traits of land plants.
Female gametangia, is vase shaped and produces a single egg retained within the base of the organism.
Male gametangia, produce and release sperm into the environment, in many plants egg has flagella that swim to the egg through water films.
Placental Transfer Cells
One of the 5 derived traits of plants, enhance the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo through elaborate ingrowths of the wall surface
One of the 5 derived traits of plants,multicellular organs in plants that that produce spores. Can generate up to 50 million spores. Also called the capsule.
One of the 5 derived traits of plants, A diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
Cells that are joined into tubes that transfer water and nutrients throughout the plant body
Oldest group of seedless vascular plants that includes club mosses, spike mosses and quillworts, clade of vascular plants-club mosses and their relatives(lack seeds)
Group of seedless vascular plants(Ferns and their relatives), can be broken down into 3 groups (Psilotum nudum(Whisk Fern) , Stenophyta (Horsetails), and pterophya(ferns)
PhyNaked seed plants because their seeds are not contained in chambers.
Huge clade consisting of all flowering plants, seeds develop within chambers called ovaries, which originate within the flowers and mature within fruit.
Small plants commonly called liverworts because the flattened body of the plan resembles the lobes of an animals liver.Has longer and larger gametophytes than sporophytes.
Hornworts; a gametophyte seedless plant that has horn-shape saprophytes and has to get its own water.Has longer and larger gametophytes than sporophytes. Mainly grows horizontally.
The formal taxonomic name for the phylum that consist solely of mosses.Has longer and larger gametophytes than sporophytes. Out of the three phylum of non vascular plants grows more vertically than horizontally.
A mass of green, branched, one cell thick filaments typically produced by germinating moss spores. Has large surface area that enhances absorption of water and minerals, and in favorable conditions produces one bud per apical meristem.
A bud with apical meristems that is produced by protomema in favorable conditions.
Long Tubular single cells (in liverworts and hornworts) or filaments off cells (in mosses) that anchor the gametophyte., are not composed of tissue and lack specialized conducting cells, so they do not play a role in water and mineral absorption.
Elongated Stalk that conducts materials to the sporangium. In most mosses becomes elongated and enhances spore dispersal by elevating the capsule.
Structure embedded in the archegonium which absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte.
Toothlike structures found on the upper part of the capsule that gradually releases spores and also takes advantage of periodic wind gusts so that it can carry spores a long distance.
The small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move. Found in all vascular plants and also in hornworts and mosses.
One of the two types of vascular tissue. Conducts most of the water and minerals and include tracheids.
Tube shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from the roots. Are actually dead cells- only the walls remain and provide a system of microscopic water pipes.
A phenolic polymer that strengthens or lignifies the cell walls of water conducting tissues.
One of the two types of vascular tissue. Includes living sugar conducting cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products.
Organs that anchor vascular plants and enable them to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
Organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy for photosynthesis.Can be classified as either megaphylls or microphylls
Rose Shaped Complexes
One of the 4 ultra structural things shared between land plants and charophyceans, is a rose shaped complex that they use to synthesize their cellulose, in differs from other linear arrays found in most noncharophycean algaea.
Organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen , producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide., is one of the 4 ultra structural features shared between a charophycean and a land plant.
Found in seedless vascular plants and are restricted to moist environments, one of the 4 ultra structural traits between charophycean and land plants.
Formation of a phragmoplast
Particular details of cell division occuring only in land plants and certain charophytes (chara and Coleochaete); is an alignment of cytoskeletal elements and golgi derived vesicles.
Alteration of Generations
a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte, one o the 5 derived traits of land plants \
A type of secondary compoun, found in black-eyed peas, grapes, lentils, red and white wine, tea
Act as antioxidants; may inhibit carcinogenic activation and cancer promotion
Drugs that prevent chromosome spindle formation, used to treats cancers
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, weakly estrogenic and stabilization of capillary permeability.
Lack of this puts a limit on the Phyum Byrophytes possible functional size.
in mosses, the part that contains spores; in bacteria, a protective layer of polysaccharides around the cell wall, in its immature stage it has a sticky layer called the calypra on it
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein. According to the current model of evolution these were the result of the outgrowth of stems.
a leaf with a large highly branched vascular system, characteristic of vast majority of vascular plants; Complex leaves
Modified leaves that bear sporangia, an evolutionary milestone, in a cluster they produce clusters known as Sori usually on the bottom side, may also form cones(strobili)
clusters of reproductive cells on the underside of a Sporophyll
A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal. Only develops after fertilization
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs. (Most Seedless Vascular Plants)
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes. (ALL Seed plants and a few seedless)
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte bearing archegonia.
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte with antheridia.
a protective later of cells that covers the megasporangium, open at one end- micropyle
a structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte
male gametophytes developed from microspores of seed plants.
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters
gymnosperm; cone-bearing plants; most are evergreen
from 230 million to 63 million years ago, al;so known as the age of Dinosours or the Age of Cycads
A gymnosperm phylum consisting of 3 genera (Gnetum, Ephedra, and Welwitdchia, some of which are tropical while others live in deserts,
Period from 408 million through 360 million years ago. Seas rise and fall over what is now North America. Age of fishes begans as sharks and fish with scales and bony skeletons become common. Trilobites and corals floors in the ocean. Lungfish develope. First amphibians reach land.
first trees. they had wood which allowed them to grow taller, and they could grow far away from water, did not bear seeds, was a transistional species known as a progymosperms.
Transitional species of seedless vascular plants
from 280 million to 230 million years ago, the boundary between New Life and Old Life.
reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts
green, leaflike part of the plower that covers and protects the flower bud before it opens (Sterile)
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators. Located above the sepals (Sterile)
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament. Give rise to pollen grains containing male gametophytes
stalk that supports the anther
The terminal pollen sac of a stamen, inside which pollen grains with male gametes form in the flower of an angiosperm.
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower
The base of a flower; the part of the stem that is the site of attachment of the floral organs.
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
the thickened wall of a fruit, used to be the ovary.
succulent and watery at maturity, ie tomato
a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm. Is supposed to synchronize the development of food storage in the seed with the development of the embryo.
Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that compares developmental processes of different multicellular organisms to understand how these processes have evolved and how changes can modify existing organismal features or lead to new ones.
Small structure produced by the male reproductive organs of a seed plant. Has a water-resistant coat, contains gametophyte parts that will produce sperm. Including 2 haploid cells (A generative cell that divides forming new sperm, and a tube cell that produces pollen tubes.
In gymnosperms: divides to form the sterile and spermatogenous cells. In Angiosperms: divides to form 2 sperm.
the cell from a male plant that grows down the style to the opening of the micropyle; grows a pollen tube
A nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds. Triplod
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
Mostly Male Hypothesis
A hypothesis proposed by Frochlich in which the ancestor of angiosperms had seperate pollen producing and ovule producing structures, but then a mutation ovules developed on some microphylls, which then evolved into carpels. Evidence inculdes comparisons of genes that give rise to flowers and cones
A group of angiosperms that have single cotyledons (embryonic seed leaf). Flower parts in 3s or multiples of 3s, vascular tissue in scattered bundles, fibrous root system, and leaves with parallel veins.
Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.
A group of angiosperms with two cotyledons. Flower parts in fours or fives, vascular tissue in (distinct) bundles arranged in a circle, taproot system, leaves with netted veins. Now divided into 3 groups itself ,Basal, Eudicots, and Magnolids
are the prominenet primary roots from which secondary roots grow.
They divide, become fleshy, and often penetrate deeply into the soil.
Fibrous Root System
Root systems common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface.
The most primitive lineages of flowering plants, including Amborella, water lilies, and star anise and relatives
A flowering plant clade that evolved later than basal angiosperms but before monocots and eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants.
the process in which species exert selective pressure on each other and gradually evolve new features or behaviors as a result of those pressures
Found in bitter almonds and many fruit pits, Yields hydrogen cyanide when mixed with acids or hydrolytic enzymes
Used as a base to be reworked for aspirin. A glycoside. In WILLOW BARK
Blocks acetylcholine in muscarinic receptors. Has no effect on nicotinic receptors. Causes dilationof the pupil (mydriasis) and increase in heart rate as well as dry mouth.
a lotion containing menthol which gives it a mint flavoring