voice of people
-house of lords
-house of commons
refused to give King Charles money until he signed petition of right, passed laws limiting royal powers, after death of Charles II drafted Bill of Rights
English Civil War
Royalists (loyal to King Charles) vs. Roundheads(Parliament supporters)
general for Parliament, abolished monarchy and house of lords, established new government called common wealth, dismissed Parliament, when he died his government collapsed
What are causes for a Revolution?
rights taken away, had previous experience of freedom, absolute monarch, high taxes, Enlightenment thinkers, lack of representation in gov., gap between rich and poor
What are the 2 parts of the actual revolution?
1. overthrow (violent or non violent)
2. deal with ruler (kill, exile, imprison)
What happens post revolution?
Rule by moderates, then Radicals take over and a sometimes a "reign of terror", then people run from radical rule and go back to old order(generally monarchy)
What are the effects of a revolution?
change in government, guarantee rights, revolutions tend to cause revolutions elsewhere
absolute monarch, disbanded Parliament then later recalls it and asks for money(needed money to fight war) but when they refuse he disbands it again, Parliament attempts to limit his power and he arrests the leaders, people of England revolt against him(English Civil War)
First and Second Continental Congress
wrote Declaration of Independence, organized revolutionary army
What were causes of the English Revolution?
Political: absolute monarch, freedoms taken away
Social: experience with some independence, enlightenment ideas
What were causes of the American Revolution?
Political: Quartering Acts, Intolerable Acts
Economic: British had debt from French and Indian War, taxes (Stamp Act, Tea Act)
Social: used to Independence, inspired by "life, liberty, and property", charters gave freedom
What were causes of the French Revolution?
Political: large gap between rich and poor
Economic: high taxes, high prices, bad harvests, 1st and 2nd Estate didn't pay taxes
Social: gap between rich and poor, Enlightenment ideas
What are the stages of revolution?
tax revolts, revolutionary mobilization(groups of revolution emerge), ineffective government repression(government attempts to use military force to restrain illegal actions of revolutionaries), ineffective government accommodation(government gives in to revolutionaries hoping to stop revolts)
Who were parties of revolution during the American Revolution?
Continental Congress, Sons of Liberty, Daughters of Revolution
During the American Revolution, what was the ineffective government repression?
British troops occupied Boston after Boston Tea Party, they conducted illegal searches
What was the rule of the moderates in the A.R.?
Patriots in Continental Congress, Articles of Confederation(technically 1st Constitution)
What was the turn from radical rule during the A.R.?
came up with Constitution with formed federal gov.
What were the effects of the A.R.?
legislative government, Bill of Rights, could not be taxed unreasonably, elected leaders, led to French Revolution
Meeting of the Estates General
each estate had one vote, Third Estate wanted one vote per delegate(Third Estate was majority of population), Third Estates request denied by king
Reign of Terror in FR
radicals protested King Louis XVI coming back to throne, raided prisons, killed more than 1000 people
Robespierre rules: against peasant rights, seized control, executes about 85% of peasants, eventually captures and killed by National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
Third Estate delegates locked out of meeting, broke into tennis court and took an oath to stay there until they had drawn up a new constitution, King Louis XVI gave into demands for one vote per delegate (ineffective government accommodation)
March on Versaille
riots and violence throughout Paris, peasants feared nobles were trying to starve them so they stormed the Palace of Versailles, this forced King Louis XVI out of palace and out of power
Storming of the Bastille
King Louis XVI feared uprising so gave into National Assembly (ineffective government accommodation), called in Swiss troops to keep peace in Paris because most soldiers were in 3rd Estate (ineffective government repression)
people panicked when they saw the Swiss troops and stormed the French prison, the Bastille, to get gun powder to defend themselves from Swiss
example of Revolutionary Mobilization
formed by third estate delegates, gave themselves to power to pass laws, vowed to end absolute monarch
What were the effects of the French Revolution?
National Assembly adopted "Declaration of the Right of Man"
How did the French Revolution deal with overthrown government?
King Louis XVI was beaten, he tried to escape to Netherlands but brought back to France
created by National Assembly, made new laws, new French government, (rule of moderates)
What was the radicals gaining power in the F.R.?
division in Legislative Assembly
radicals=sans cullottes, really poor peasants, conseratives=emigres, former members of 2nd Estate
What was the rule by radicals in the FR?
Jacobins=radical political group, wanted to get rid of monarchy and establish republic