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Abigail Adams

wife of John Adams, mother of John Quincy Adams, writer and American feminist, she was also the first First Lady to live in what was later known as the White House.

John Adams

American statesman; he was a delegate to the Continental Congress, a member of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence, vice president to George Washington and second president of the U.S.

John Quincy Adams

he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the 6th president of the U.S. and later became a representative in Congress.

Samuel Adams

American revolutionary who led the agitation that led to the Boston Tea party

Robert Anderson

union commander in charge of Fort Sumter when it was attacked by the Confederacy..

Susan B. Anthony

American Social Reformer, she was active in the temperance, abolitionist and women's suffrage movements and was co-organizer and president of the National Women Suffrage Association

Moses Austin

American banker who requested land in Texas from the Mexican government on which to build a colony; he died before he received the land and his son, Stephen Austin, late founded a colony there.

Stephen F. Austin

American colonizer in Texas; after helping Texas win independence from Mexico he became secretary of State for the Texas Republic.

Lord Baltimore

English and the first Lord Baltimore, he requested land to establish a colony for Catholics in America, but died before it was granted. His son, the second Lord Baltimore, later established a settlement in Maryland in 1632.

Clara Barton

Founder of the American Red Cross; she administered care to the Union soldiers during the American Civil War.

Catherine Beecher

American Educator and the daughter of Lyman Beecher; she promoted education for women in such writings as An essay on the Education of Female Teachers. She founded the first all-female academy.

John Bell

American Politician, he was nominated for president in 1860 by the constitutional union party because of his moderate pro-slavery and pro-Union views.

John Wilkes Booth

Actor and Confederate supporter who assassinated Abraham Lincoln.

William Bradford

Leader of the Pilgrims who came to New England aboard the Mayflower and established a colony at Plymouth; he served as the governor of Plymouth from 1621 to 1656.

John C. Breckinridge

American politician; he se4rved as vice president under President James Buchanan and ran for president as a Southern Democrat in 1860.

John Brown

American Abolitionist; he started the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas to revenge killings of abolitionists. He later seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, to encourage a slave revolt. He was tried and executed.

Brutus

Name used by Robert Yates, An American layer and leader of the Antifederalists, when writing letter s to the Constitutional Convention in opposition of the Constitution.

James Buchanan

American politician and fifteenth president; he was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president in 1854 for being politically experienced and not offensive to slave states.

Aaron Burr

American soldier, lawyer, senator, and v ice President of the U.S.; he shot and killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1807 and was arrested for treason in 1807 and later acquitted. His trial ended his political career.

John C. Calhoun

American politician and supporter of slavery and states; rights; he served as vice president to Andrew Jackson and was instrumental in the South Carolina nullification crisis.

George Rogers Clark

American Revolutionary soldier and frontier leader, he captured the British trading village of Kaskaskia during the Revolution and encouraged Indian leaders to remain neutral.

William Clark

American soldier and friend of Meriwether Lewis; he was invited to explore the Louisiana Purchase and joined what became known as the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Christopher Columbus

Italian explorer who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route to Asia.

Charles Cornwallis

British general and commander of the British army at the Battle of Yorktown. After the defeat of the British army he was forced to surrender to the American, ending the American Revolution.

Fransisco Vazquez de Coronado

Spanish explorer who explored parts of the southerwestern United States in search of the legendary Seven Cities of Gold.

Hernan Cortez

Spanish conquistador; he conquered Mexico and brought about the fall of the Aztec Empire

Jefferson Davis

First and only president of the Confederate States of America after the election of president Lincoln in 1860 led to the secession of many southern states

Dorothea Dix

American philanthropist and social reformer; she helped change the prison system nationwide by advocating the development of state hospitals to treat the mentally ill instead of jails.

Stephen A. Douglas

American politician and pro slavery nominee for president; he debated Abraham Lincoln about slavery during the Illinois senatorial race. He proposed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act, and he established the Freeport Doctrine, upholding the idea of popular sovereignty.

Frederick Douglass

American abolitionist and writer. He escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published an autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, The North Star.

Sir Francis Drake

English naval captain; he circumnavigated the globe in 1577; plundering Spanish ships sand towns as he sailed.

Jonathan Edwards

Important and influential revivalist leader in the Great Awakening religious movement; he delivered dramatic sermons on the choice between salvation and damnation.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American essayist and poet; he was a supporter of the transcendentalist philosophy of self-reliance.

Olaudah Equiano

African American abolitionist; he was an enslaved African who was eventually freed, became a leader of the abolitionist movement, and wrote The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.

Leif Eriksson

Viking seaman who was the first European to land on the continent of North America.

Millard Fillmore

Thirteenth president of the U.S., oversaw the passage of the Compromise of 1850.

Charles G. Finney

American clergyman and educator; he became influential in the Second Great Awakening after a dramatic religious experience and conversion.

Benjamin Franklin

American statesman; he was a philosopher, scientist, inventor, writer, publisher, first U.S. postmaster, and member of the committee to draft the Constitution.

John Fremont

American explorer, Army officer, and politician; he was chosen as the first Republican candidate for president. Against the spread of slavery, he was rejected by all but the free states as a "single issue" candidate in the election of 1856.

Robert Fulton

American engineer and inventor; he built the first commercially successful full-sized steamboat, the Clermont which led to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people

Bernardo de Galvez

Governor of Spanish Louisiana; he captured key cities from the British, greatly aiding the American Patriot movement and enabling the Spanish acquisition of Florida.

William Lloyd Garrison

American journalist and reformer; he published the famous anti slavery newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-slavery society, promoting immediate emancipation and racial equality.

Ulysses S. Grant

Eighteenth president of the United States; he received a field promotion to lieutenant general in charge of all union forces. He accepted General Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the Civil War.

Nathaniel Greene

American general during the revolution and commander of the Army of the South; he is credited with having saved the Southern colonies from the British army.

George Grenville

English politician whose policy of taxing the American colonists contributed to the start of the American revolution.

Alexander Hamilton

American statesman and member of the Continental congress and Constitutional Convention; he was an author of the Federalist Papers, which supported ratification of the Constitution. He was the first secretary of treasury under George Washington and developed the Bank of the United States.

William Henry Harrison

American politician; he served as the governor of Indian Territory and fought Tecumseh in the Battle of Tippecanoe. He was the ninth president of the United States.

Rutherford B. Hayes

Nineteenth president of the United States; he was a Civil War general and hero and, in the disputed presidential election of 1876, he was chosen president by a special electoral committee.

Sam Houston

American lawyer, politician, and soldier; he led the U.S. settlers in a fight to secure Texas against Mexico and was instrumental in Texas' admission to the United States in 1845.

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan leader who angered other Puritans by claiming that people's relationship to God did not need guidance from ministers; she was tried and convicted of undermining church authorities and was banished from Massachusetts colony; she later establish the colony of Portsmouth in present-day Rhode Island.

Queen Isabella

Queen of Spain, who together with her husband, King Ferdinand II, believed in uniting Spain under Catholicism; she funded Columbus' expedition in search of the New World.

Andrew Jackson

Nicknamed Old Hickory, he was an American hero in the Battle of New Orleans. He defeated the Creek Indians, securing 23 million acres of Land and his election as the seventh president of the United States marked and era of democracy called Jacksonian Democracy.

Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson

American Confederate general; he led the Shenandoah Valley campaign and fought with Lee in the Seven Days' Battles and the first and second battles of Bull Run.

John Jay

American Statesman and member of the Continental Congress; he authored some of the Federalist papers and negotiated Jay's Treaty with Great Britain to settle outstanding disputes.

Thomas Jefferson

American statesman; he was a member of two Continental Congresses, chairman of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence, the Declaration's main author and one of its signers, and the third president of the United States.

Andrew Johnson

American politician who became the seventeenth president of the United States upon the assassination of Lincoln. He was impeached for his unpopular ideas about Reconstruction and held onto the office by a one-vote margin.

Stephen Kearny

American General who fought in the Mexican-American War, leading forces that captured New Mexico and helping in the capture of California from Mexico.

Marquis de Lafayette

French statesman and officer who viewed the American Revolution as important to the world; he helped finance the Revolution and served as a major general

Robert E. Lee

American general; he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union Army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his deeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Court House.

Meriwhether Lewis

Former army captain selected by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase; he lead the expedition that became known as the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Abraham Lincoln

Sixteenth president of the United States; he promoted equal rights for African American in the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation and set in motion the Civil War, determined to preserve the Union. HE was assassinated in 1865.

Little Turtle

Chief of the tribe of Miami and Shawnee Native Americans; he won the greatest victory Native American had ever achieved over white armies in 1791.

James Longstreet

Confederate general who commanded Pickett's Charge at the Battle Gettysburg

Francis Lowell

American industrialist who developed the Lowell system. He hired young women to live and work in his mill.

Eliza Lucas

Plantation manager in the Carolinas; she was the first person to successfully grow Indigo in the colonies.

Martin Luther

German monk who protested against the Catholic Church in 1517; which led to the calls fro reform and the movement known as the Reformation.

James Madison

American statesman; he was a delegate toe the Constitutional Convention, the fourth president of the United States and the author of some of the Federalist Papers. He is called the "Father of the Constitution" for his proposals at the Constitutional Convention.

Horace Mann

American educator; he is considered the father of American public education

Mansa Musa

Leader of Mali who held power from 1307 to 1332.

George McClellan

American Army general put in charge of Union troops and later removed by Lincoln for failure to press Lee's Confederate troops in Richmond.

George Meade

American army officer; he served as a Union general at major Civil War Battles. He forced back General Lee's Confederate army at Gettysburg but failed to obtain a decisive victory.

James Monroe

Leading Revolutionary figure, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase, and the firth president of the United States. He put forth the Monroe Doctrine establishing the U.S> Sphere of influence in the Western Hemisphere that became the foundation of U.S. foreign policy.

Samuel F.B. Morse

American artists and inventor; he applied scientists; discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph.

Lucretia Mott

American reformer; she planned the Seneca Falls Convention with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the first organized meeting for women's rights in the United States.

Askia Muhammad

Ruler of the West African kingdom of Songhai; he was known for encouraging a revival of Muslim learning during his rule.

James Oglethorpe

English soldier and humanitarian; he founded the colony of Georgia as a haven where debtors from England could come and begin new lives.

Thomas Paine

American political philosopher and author he urged an immediate declaration of independence from England in his anonymously and simply written pamphlet, Common Sense.

William Penn

Quaker leader who founded a colony in Pennsylvania; the colony provided an important example of representative self-government and became a model of freedom and tolerance.

Franklin Pierce

Fourteenth president of the U.S.; he condemned Kansas' free-soil government as rebels, which led to the Sac of Lawrence.

Zebulon M. Pike

Army officer sent of a mission to explore the West, he was ordered to find the headwaters or the Red River. HE attempted to climb what is now known as Pikes Peak in Colorado.

Pocahontas

Algonquian princess; she waved the life of John Smith when he was captured and sentenced to death by the Powhatan. She was later taken prisoner by the English, converted to Christianity, and married colonist John Rolfe.

James Polk

Eleventh president of the United States; he negotiated the establishment or the Oregon Territory for the U.S. and acquired much land as a result of the Mexican American War.

William Pitt

English leader in Parliament who apposed taxing American colonists, but also opposed their requests for independence.

Juan Ponce De Leon

Spanish explorer who explored Puerto Rico and became its governor in 1509. In 1513 he discovered land off the east coast of Florida while looking for a fabled "Fountain of youth" and claimed the region for Spain.

Pontiac

Ottawa chief who united the Great Lakes' Indians to try to halt the advance of European settlements. He attacked British forts in a battle known as Pontiac's Rebellion and eventually surrendered.

Pope

American Indian shaman who led a revolt of Pueblo Indians in 1680 against the Spanish in present-day New Mexico, driving out the Spanish and restoring the Pueblo way of life. The Spanish retook the area after his death, but the Pueblo culture remained a part of this region.

Powhatan

Algonquin Indian chief who was the head of the Powhatan Confederacy of Algonquin Peoples; father of Pocahontas.

Publius

The author names used by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay when writing the Federalist papers.

Hiram Revels

American clergyman, educator and politician; he became the first African American in the U.S. Senate.

Count de Rochambeau

French General who led troops against the British army during the revolutionary war.

John Rolfe

English colonist who was the first tobacco grower in Virginia, he helped make tobacco a profitable export to England; married Pocahontas.

Sacagewea

Shoshone woman who, along with French fur trapper husband, accompanied and aided Lewis and Clark on their expedition.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Mexican general, president and dictator; he fought in the Texas Revolution and seized the Alamo but was defeated and captured by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.

Winfield Scott

American army general who fought in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American war and the Civil was; he also ran for president in 1852 but lost.

William Tecumseh Sherman

Union army officer; his famous March to the Sea captured Atlanta, Georgia, an important turning point in the war.

Sitting Bull

Native American leader who became head chief of the entire Sioux Nation. He encouraged other Sioux leaders to resist government demands to buy lands of the Black Hills reservations.

Samuel Slater

English industrialist who rough a design for a textile Mil to America; known as the founder of the American cotton industry.

John Smith

English colonist to the Americas who helped found Jamestown Colony.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

American suffrage leader; she organized the Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott. The convention was the first organized meeting for women's rights in the United States.

Thaddeus Stevens

American lawyer and politician; he was the leader of the Radical Republicans in the Reconstruction effort and was an opponent and critic of Andrew Johnson's policies.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher; she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Zachary Taylor

American general and twelfth president of the U.S., he led American troops during the Mexican-American war. He was the first president elected after the Mex-Am War, but died only 16 months after taking office.

Tecumseh

Shawnee chief who attempted to form an Indian confederation to resist white settlement in the Northwest Territory.

Henry David Thoreau

American writer and transcendentalist philosopher; he studied nature and published a magazine article "Civil Disobedience," as well as his famous book, Walden Pond.

Alexis de Tocqueville

French philosopher, politician and author; his work Democracy in America encouraged American to form their own culture rather than mimicking that of the Europeans.

William Travis

American lawyer and commander of Texas Forces at the Alamo.

Harriet Tubman

American abolitionist who escaped slavery and assisted other enslaved African to escape. She is the most famous Underground Railroad Conductor.

Nat Turner

American slave leader; he claimed that divine inspiration had led him to end the slavery system. He led the most violent slave revolt in U.S. history; he was tried, convicted, and executed.

John Tyler

Tenth president of the U.S.; favored annexation of TX and signed the joint resolution of Congress into law three days before his term ended.

Martin van Buren

Eigth president of the U.S.; he extended the 10-hour workday plan; initiated by Jackson; to include other groups

George Washington

First president of the U.S.; he served as a representative to the Continental Congresses and commanded the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.

Stand Watie

Cherokee leader and confederate general; he was the only native American on either side to hold such a rank in the war.

Noah Webster

American author who published works on American grammar and language, his most famous work was An American Dictionary of the English Language, included thousands of words that had not been previously defined in other dictionaries.

George Whitefield

British minister who held religious open air meetings throughout the American colonies during the Great Awakening.

Eli Whitney

American inventor whose cotton gin changed cotton harvesting procedures and enabled large increases in cotton production; he introduced the technology of mass production through the development of interchangeable part in gun-making.

William and Mary

King William III and Queen Mary II; rulers of Great Britain who replaced King James II as a result of the Glorious Revolution.

Roger Williams

Puritan separatist who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635 for preaching that government and religion should be separate, and that settlers should compensate Native Americans for their land, rather than taking it. He later established a colony in Providence, Rhode Island where all religions were welcome.

John Winthrop

Leader of the Massachusetts Bay Colony who led Puritan colonists to Massachusetts to establish an ideal Christian community; he later became the colony's first governor.

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