Old Stone Age
Paleolithic age, 2.5 million-8000B.C Old stone age chopping tools were invented, mastery over fire, developement of language. p. 7
New Stone Age
Neolithic Age, 8000 B.C learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops and raise animals.
the discovery of the use of copper and tin
metal workers discovered that melting amounts of copper and tin made bronze. after 2500B.C.
key traits of civilization
advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping and advanced technology
Ur and Ziggurat
Ur was a city in Sumer. Ziggurat is a tiered pyramid shaped structure that formed part of sumerian temple.
a way of trading goods and services without paying money.
a system of writing with wedge shaped symbols invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
the people who dominated southern Mesopotamia. they were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotaniam culture, such as, irregation, technology, cuneiform and religious conceptions.
first civilization located between the Tigris and Europhates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means, "land between rivers:" sumerian culture
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit. they have their own rulers.
was poly theistic. thier gods were often cruel and unpredictable. you had to please them through rituals to avoid natural disasters.
Babylonia at its height
ruler was Hammurabi. Put together a code of laws. applied to everyone, but different punishments for rich and poor.
Ra and Horus
Ra- ancient hawk-headed Egyptian sun God.
Horus- Egyptian falcon-headed solar God.
Egyptian Writing System
Hieroglyphics, greek words hiero and glyph sacred carvings.
polished black stone used for writing.
Egyptian Writing Surface
called papyrus, egyptians split reeds into strips and placed them in layers, dampened thamm and pressed them together. sap glued them together to make paper.
Chariot riders that invaded and ruled egypt for about 70 years
Hyksos (rulers of foriegn lands) invaded and ruled much of Egypt.
one of the largest cities of indu. had plumbing systems.
The first chinese dynasty to leave written recordss
shang dynasty was the first chinese dynasty to leave written records.
Chinese Dynasty after the Shang Dynasty
Zhou people overthro, they kept much of zShang culture but brough new ideas to chinese development.
mandate of Heaven
in the Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority. P.54
the zhou dynasty
produced many innovations with roads and canals, to stimulate trade and agriculture, coined money which improved trade, and blast furnaces that produced cast iron were developed. P. 55
a soul's good or bad deeds, -- follows from one reincarnation to another. P. 67
was the founder of Buddhism, was born into a noble family. P.68
The eightfold Path
a guide to behavior p. 69
the system of the alphabet
a system that the Phoenicians came up with to write down symbols for sounds. P. 74
The King of Isreal
Saul and David establish a kingdom, Solomon builds the kingdom, the kingdom divides. P. 81
lead to daoism, search for knowledge and understanding of nature led its followers to pursue scientific studies. right and wrong, good manners and bad manners.
taught that a ruler should provide rewards for people who carry out their duties well. a highly efficient and powerful government is key to social order.
Babylonian Compilation of laws
Hammurabi code of laws, uniform system
persian prophet, earth is a battle ground with a spirit of good and evil.
greek mainland peoples. indo- European person.
greek- speaking, migrated to greece after the destructionof the Mycenaen civilization.
sea-faring peoples, lived on the island of Crete.
a greek city-state, the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece. Made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included many villages.
in Greece, this was a type of government that was ruled by a small group of noble. landowning families.
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by sparta and its allies.
a military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields that became the most powerful fighting force in the ancient world.
in the society of ancient Sparta, the Messenians were forced to stay on the land they worked.
the battle of Marathon
Marathon is a plain in athens where 10,000 Athenians arranged in phalanxes waited for the Persians and eventually the Persians fled the battlefield.
The Persian Wars
a series of wars in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire.
a government controlled by its citizens, either directly or through representatives.
"lovers of wisdom", thinkers who use logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society and morality.
serious frama anout love, hate, war and betrayal.
humorous form of drama that includes slapstick situations, and crude humor.
led Athens during much of the Golden Age. he was a skillful politician, an inspiring speaker, and a respected general. he had three goals,
1. strengthen Athenian democracy
2. hold and strengthen the empire
3. to glorigy Athens.
a book written by Plato about the conversations of Socrates, as means of Philosophical investigation.
The Greek Philosophers
there were three, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
Alexander the Great
Phillip's son who immediately proclaimed king of macedonia. accomplishments of 13 years became known as Alexander the Great.
Relating to the civilization, language, art, science and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late 2nd century.
Dreamed of taking control of Greece and then moving against Persia to seize its vast wealth.
Among the many cities of the hellenistic world, this Egyptian City became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
by Euclid, the book of geometry, proofs and propositions.
Social classes of Rome
Rich lived extravagantly by spending a lot of money on homes, gardens, slaves and luxuries.
Patricians and Plebeians
MOST barely had the necessities of life-much of population were unemployed.
Rome and Carthage
Fought in Punic Wars
Carthage beats Rome
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second punic war and defeated Hannibal at Zama.
The general from Carthage
the punic wars
between Rome and Carthage, a long struggle. there were 3 punic wars,
1st- Rome won
2nd- Carthage won?
3rd- Rome won
the two tribunes who attempted to protect Rome's poor
Tiberius and Gaius
The first Roman Dictator and the first Roman emperor
The Pax Romana
a strong willed army leader who later became the emporer of Rome.
the three governing bodies of the Roman Republic
government by King, government by nobles, government by the people. The senate and the consuls.
the problems in the roman empire that led to its fall
the economy suffered from inflation, there was military and political turmoil. Military officers fought among themselves
the emperor who granted freedom of religion to Christians in the Roman Empire
the king of the visgoths whose armies sacked Rome
king of the franks and introduced the concept Christianity
the Eastern Roman Empire
also called the Byzantine Empire, not only flourished but maintained its Greek and roman culture for another 1,000 years
Liu Bang's Dynasty
Liu Bang founded the Han Dynasty. his first goal was to destroy the rival kings in power. Lowered taxes and softened harsh punishments. He brought peace and stability
Empire of Ghana, yoruba kingdom established in 1100
an effort to practice religion in the face of oppression and persecution
founder of the muslims, born into the clan of a powerful Meccan family
starts with muhammads trip from Mecca to medina
the Feudal System
the system in which knights were used for defense-exchanging land for service
the manor system
the basic economic arrangment; rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs. the lord provided the serfs with housing and protections and in return the serf's attended to the lords lands
lords and vassals
vassals: landowner that bought land from a lord. Lords: landowners
charles the great, an emperor over the frankish kingdom who was 6 foot 4 and built up a great empire
england and france
william the conquorer took over england and controlled the centralized government and unified the lands
the code of chivalry
a complex set of ideals where knights were to display courage to their lords
great charter, guarenteeing certain basic political rights limiting the king's overs to protect themselves. no taxation without representation
the great schism
the split of the church because of the conflict with having 2 popes at once. one lived in rome the other in avignon
joan of arc
a 13 year old girl who believed she was seeing and hearing tthings coming from saints and was encouraged by them and moved by God to rescue France from english conquers
an estate granted by a vassal by a lord under the feudal system
landowner who granted land (fief) to a vassal
person receiving feif from the lord
cheap, easy to carry deadly weapon that resembles a bow and arrow. strong enough to penetrate armor which changed the ways of fighting wars.
the hundred years war
england and france battled with each other on french coild for over a century. the kings of england invaded france to claim the throne. joan of arc helped rally the french who drove out the english
islams two branches
shi'a: the party of ali. sunni: followeers of muhammad's example
pope urban the second issued a holy war to gain control of the holy land
1st: 3 armies of knights and people captured a small strip of Jerusalem that were vulnerable
2nd: muslims begin capturing people they lost in the first, took city of edessa. failed crusade
3rd: to recapture Jerusalem, led by Phillip 2, frederick I and the richard the lion hearted, philip went home,frederick died. richard left. jerusalem remained uner muslim control
the great schism
a division in the medieval roman catholic church, during which rival poper were established in avignon and in rome
an area extending from central mexico to honduras, where several of the ancien complex societies of the americas developed
nomadic, desert tribeman who joined with other tribesmen to being the settlements from which the muslim empire sprain
arabic for "the god"
original home of the muhammad
the migration in 622 of muhammad and his followers from mecca to yathrib
city of the prophet
an islamic house of worship
one who has submitted in arabic
the muslim holy book
the sunna, muhammads example
the model for living a proper muslim life
the five pillars
the duties of all muslims, faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
a combination of the qur'an and sunna, the system of law that regulates the famiily life, oral conduct, business life, and community life of muslims
the pilgrimage to mecca that each muslim strives to make at least once in a lifetime
the justinian code
a single, uniform code known as the justinian code
the main supporter of the iconoclasts
the byzantine empire
a turkish group who migrated into the abbasid empire in the 10th century and established their own empire in the 11th century
why did learning decline during the last years of Roman Empire
because the germanic invaders who stormed Rome could not read or write. Among Roman subjects themselves, the level of learning sank sharply as more and more families left for rural areas. Few people except priests and other church officals were literate.
why did henry the IV stand barefoot in the snow for three days begging forgiveness of pope gregory VII?
because he wanted to save his throne for trying to remove gregory VII from the papacy, because he banned lay investiture. Instead, the german bishops and prones agreed with gregory to excommunicate henry
the concordat of worms
the compromise between the emperor and church representatitves in the german city of worms; the church alone could appoint a bishop, but the emperor could veto the appointment
forces holding feudal society together
the king because he owned a lot of the land that he granted to nobles in exchange for their loyalty
the code of chivalry
a code of behavior for knights in medival Europoe, stressing ideals like courage loyalty and devotion to his earthly feudal lord, his heavenly lord, and his chosen lady. they also protected the weak and the poor
dante alighieri and geoffrey chaucer
both wrote in vernacular, algiheri wrote "divine comedy in italian and chaucer wrote the canterbury tales in english
the battle of hastings
william the conquerer and the normans beat harold godwinson and the anglo sazons; william and the normans then controlled england
the establishment of parliament
edward I created the first parliament in order to raise taxes for funding for english war; included groups of commonoers and rich lords ( a model for later kings)
lived in stateless societies run by individual family groups; matrilineal families traced ancestors and inheritance through mothers; patrilineal families traced ancestors and inheritance through fathers
islam spread throughout africa
ibn yasin founded strict muslim brotherhood called almoravids who set out to spread islam through conquest of neighboring nations; almohads, another group of muslim reformers, seized power
man who excelled in many fields and mastered every area of study; was expected to bed well-educated, artistic and poetic, and a skilled rider, wrestler and swordsman
italy's location and the birthplace of the renaissance
because of overseas trade sparked by the crusades, large cities and urban areas developed in italy; these busy cities created axchange of ideas which lead to the intellectual revolution of the renaissance
a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founfing of christian churches that rejected the pope's authority
wrote the 95 theses challenging the selling of indulgences and believes that people could win salvation only by faith in God's forgiveness, all church teachings should be clearly based on the bible and that ll people in faith were equal.
became king of england and was a catholic. he set out to get the pope's permission to annul hi marriage so that he could marry someone that was younger and could provide a make heir for him
members of a christian church founded on the principles of the reformation
a body of people whose teachings are based on the ideas of John Calvin
members of a protestant church governed by presbyters and founded on the teachings of John Knox
french followers of calvin (french calvinists)