What role does emotion play in human growth and development?
emotions paly a role in survival, motivating human behavior, and supporting communication among people
What are the first infant emotions?
Distress, disgust, and interest.
Describe infant emotions from birth to 2 years.
4-6 weeks: the social smile(joy) emerges
3-4 months: anger, surprise and sadness
6-8 months: shame, shyness, and self-awareness
2 years: contempt and guilt
What does Izard believe?
there are ten universal emotions that appear in infants' facial expressions; however, the universality of emotions is controversial. primary emotions are found ni all cultures, while secondary emotions are found in some but not all cultures.
What is James Lange's theory of emotion?
stimuli in the environment cause physicological arousal of the muscles, skin, and internal organs which we interpret as emotions.
What is Cannon-Bard's theory of emotion?
emotions are neuorlogical; we feel the physiological arousal and an emotion simultaneously.
What is the Cognitive theory of emotion?
our perceptions of situations determine how we interpret our physiological arousal
What is Zajonc theory of emotion?
cognitions come after emotions, and we think of explanations for our feelings.
Name four theories of emotion and describe the differences between each.
1. james lange: stimuli in environment cause physiological arousal in body which we interpret as emotion
2. Cannon-Bard: emotions are neurological; we feel physiological arousal and emotion at the same time
3. Cognitive Theory: perceptions of situations determine how we interpret physiological arousal
4. Zajonc: (1984) cognitions come after emotions as explanations of our feelings
Whar emotions emerge in humans at 4-6 weeks, 3-4 months, 5-7 months, 6-8 months, and around 2 years?
4-6 weeks: the social smile(joy) emerges
3-4 months: anger, surprise and sadness
6-8 months: shame, shyness, and self-awareness
2 years: contempt and guilt
What are believed differences regarding gender and emotion?
men and women respond physiologically the same to external distressing events; men do not express concern as openly; women have stonger emotional reactions to self-generated thoughts and memories; in repsonse to criticism, women turn anger inward, and men express anger at another person; women are more skilled at decoding facial expression, body cues, and tones of voice
What are three possible explanations for women being able to better decode facial expression, body cues, and tones of voice than men?
Women have developed this ability as an adaptive function becasue they have:
1. historically been primary caregivers for preverbal children
2. occupied positions of less power in society
3. occupy jobs high in emotional labor
inner emotional or cognitive states and processes that prompt, direct, and sustain a person's activity.
Define drive as it relates to motivation?
Drive is the states of tension that motivate behavior, may be primary or secondary. Primary drives (or motives) are based on physiological state (hunger, thrist, and sex). Secondary drives are learned and are not based on physiological state (money, ambition). Social motives are affiliation, agression, and achievement.
Name three types of drive as it relates to motivation?
1. primary: physiological state (hunger, thirst, sex)
2. secondary: learned (money, ambition)
3. social (affiliation, aggression, achievement)
What occurs if achievement motivation (nAch) is too high?
It can increase chance of failure and decrease confidence.
What is Instinct Theory as it relates to motivation?
behavior that is programmed and motivation comes from internal forces.
What is Drive Reduction Theory as it relates to motivation?
behavior is drected toward restoring homestasis. Homestasis is the state of optimal balance brought about by an internal regulatory mechanism. It may be physical, soical, or familial.
What is Incentive Theory as it relates to motivation?
behavior is shaped by external conditions
What is Cognitive Theory as it relates to motivation?
behavior is influenced by thinking, judging, and information processing
What are five theories of motivation and how are they different?
1. instinct theory: behavior is programmed and motivation comes from internal forces
2. drive reduction theory: behavior is directed toward restoring homeostasis of an internal regulatory system(physical, social, familial
3. incentive theory: behavior is shaped by external conditions
4. cognitve theory: behavior is influenced by thinking, judging, and information processing
5. maslow's theory : people are motivated by lowest level of unmet needs (lower order = physiological and safety) (higher order = belongingness, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization)
What is Maslow's Theory of motivation?
people are motivated by lowest level of unmet needs (lower order = physiological and safety)(higher order= belongingness, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization)
What does Maslow consider lower order needs as they relate to motivation?
physiological and safety
What does Maslow consider higher order needs as they relate to motivation?
belongingness, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization
Which hemisphere of the brain processes language?
left; (language and thought appear to shape each other)
Which two areas are specialized for language processing?
Brocas's (produces language) and Wernicke's(receptive language)
Do language and thought shape each other?
What is language acquistion device?
Chomsky (1965) proposed that an innate language acquistion device is responsible for ability of a child to formulate new sentences, and not just ones that have been overheard.
What is the critical period for language?
2 years to 14 years during which language must be learned
As it relates to language structure, what are phonemes?
the smallest units of sound in a language
As it relates to language structure, what are morphemes?
the smallest units of sound that carry menaing, and may be a word or a part of a word (e.g., -ed, or -s at the end of a word)
What is syntax?
arrangement of words for combining words (word order) to form meaningful sentences
What is meant by the "rules of semantics"
meanings of words and the content of language
What did Chomsky (1965) propose?
Language Acquistion Device- innate language acquisiton device is responsible for the ability of a child to formulate new sentences and not just ones that have been overwhelmed
Describe language development from birth to 2 years.
3-4 months: babbling
4-6 months: intonation of modeled language
9 months - 1year: echolalia (echophrasia), conscious imitation of adult sounds without understanding
1 year - first word (usually dada)
1-1.5 years: holophrastic speech, one word sentences that communicate an entire thought and are context-dependent
2 years: telegraphic speech, two and three word sentences (appears by age two)
3 years: "mommy work" becomes "mommy goes to work"; over regularizing also occurs ("goed" instead of "went")
2.5 -3 years: vocabulary increases most rapidly during this time
What is echolalia and at what age does it occur in human development?
also know as echophrasia; conscious imitation of adult sounds without understanding (occurs at 9 months to one year)
What is holophrasitc speech and at what age does it occur?
one word sentences that communicate an entire thought and are context-dependent; appears at 1-1.5 years
At what approximate age do children say their first word.
1 years old
What is telegraphic speech and at what age does it occur?
two and three word sentences ("Jill drink milk"); appears by age 2
What is the criteria and cause of mental retardation?
IQ=70 or less, singnificant impairment in adaptive functioning, and onset before age 18; it may be caused by genetic factors or combinations of biological and environmental factors.
What is the cause of Down Syndrome and what are live birth statistics, life expectancy, and range of mental retardation?
caused by trisomy 21 (extra copy of the 21st chromosome pair) which is detectable at 12 weeks of pregnancy and pregnant women over age 35 have an increase risk; occurs in 1 of 800 live births, life expectancy is 40 years, mental retardation is usually in the mild to moderate range, downs syndrome occurs in 10% of the mentally retarded population
What is the IQ of an individual with mental retardation?
70 or less
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
genetically caused metabolic disorder in which deficiency of an enzyme permits phenylalanine to build up in the body; mental retardation is a possible result if the condition is not managed through diet.
What are other influences of mental retardation?
malnutrition of mother during pregnancy, maternal chronic illness such as diabetes, anemia, maternal infections (rubella, cytomegalic inclusion disease and syphilis) and physical disease or trauma after birth (meningitis, head injury, brain damage from near drowning); certain correlates of low socioeconomic status are associated with risk, premature birth, poor medical care, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, teratogens (toxic substances that cross placenta and cause birth defects); parental mental illnes and very young parents can contribute to inadequate care and insufficient stimulation for development
What is a teratogen?
toxic substances that cross placenta and cause birth defects like alcohol and nicotine
Name the lobes of the brain.
frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal
What is the frontal lobe responsible for and what happens if it is damaged?
executive functioning; severe personality changes
What did Sperry (1970) discover from his research?
from his research on split brain patients, people with a severd corpus callosum, led to discoveries about the lateralization of the brain hemispheres, right and left
What is the difference between the right and left hemisphere of the brain.
right hemisphere: responsible for nonverbal, visualm and spatial tasks; it processes input simultaneously
left hemisphere: specialized for language and processes input sequentially. Broca's area is critical for producing language and Wernicke's area is critical for recpetive language.
What is the Reticular Activating System and where is it located in the brain? A dysfunctional recticular activating system is thought to be involved in what diagnosis?
the attention center of the brain; located at the base of the brain and is the convergence point for the signal from the rest of the body/ADHD
What is the limbic system?
the emotional system of the brain and is also involved in memory. the hippocampus is especially important in making new memories; marjuana disrupt the functioning of the hippocampus
What is serotonin associated with?
associated with sleep disturbance, depression, and memory, AKA the mood molecule
Depression is implicated if what two neurotransmitters are insufficient?
serontonin and norepinephrine
If dopamine is in excess what diagnosis is implicated?
If dopamine is deficient what diagnosis is implicated?
Which two neurotransmitters are associated with acute stress disorder?
Epinepherine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Name an inhibitory neurotransmitter?
Name an excitatory neurotransmitter.
What are endorphins?
group of brain chemicals which inhibit the neurons responsible for transmitting pain messages
Degeneration of which neurotransmitter has been linked to Alzheimer's disease?
Which neurotransmitter is associated with sleep disturbance, depression, and memory?
Which part of the brain is especially important in making new memories?
hippocampus (limbic system); marijuana impairs functioning
When are the happiest years of marriage?
just before the birth of the first child and the years after the children have left home
Baumrind identified four styles of parenting that differ along the dimensions of permissive-demanding and rejecting-accepting. What are they and define each?
1. authoritative parenting: most effective style, features firm standards for behavior along with reasonable freedoms, verbal give and take with the child, and much use of scaffolding or building up a child; this type of parenting produces children who have a healthy sense of autonomy and positive attitudes toward work and achieve in school.
2. authoritarian parenting: strict and rigid parenting style that emphasizes obedience; offspring are more likely to demonstrate self-punishing behaviors and suicide
3. permissive parenting: puts few demands on children for household responsibilites or orderly behavior; this "hands off" approach tends to produce children who are not very self-relaint, explorative, or self-controlled
4. harmonious parenting: rarer than other types of parenting, these parents teach humane values and have egalitarian relationship with the child; the outcome for girls in Baumrind's sample was more positive than it was for boys
What effect does authoritarian parenting have on achievement motivation?
leads to a lower need for achievement (McCelland)
Parents who set higher standards for excellence have lower or higher achieving children?
What are the Stages of Adult Development as it relates to parenting?
1. anticipatory:adjustment to pregnancy and new responsibilities
2. honeymoon: parent-child attachments are formed; parents adapt to new family and social roles
3. plateau: adaptation of parents to child's demands as the child passes from infancy to adolescence
4. disengagement: child leaves home
Who has a more important influence on self-esteem, mothers or fathers?
Who identified the following four styles of parenting: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and harmonious?
Describe gender identity from birth to age 5?
by age 3 or 4: children have a sense of gender identity (maleness or femaleness)
by age 4 or 5: they grasp that their gender is not going to change
* Both biology and socialization contribute to gender identity. There is a growing realization that gender is a social construction, and it may be viewed in terms of a continuum, rahter than two discrete categories.
What percentage of males and females consider themselves homosexual?
What are Kubler-Ross's stages of dying?
The stages. which are not universal, are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
What is the 8th leading cause of death in the US?
suicide; For males, ages15-24 it is the third leading cause of death.
According to statistics, how does gender impact suicide?
For males, 15-24 it is the third leading cause of death; girls attempt three times more often than boys, but boys complete three times more often than girls. The highes suicide rate is for white males over the age of 65, who have just retired. The lowest suicide rate is for black females over 65.
What is the most common method of committing suicide in the US?
firearms; which includes the age group of 10-19 year olds
True or False: Gay and lesbian youth are less likely to attempt suicide.
False; gay and lesbian youth are twice as likely to attempt suicide
How does alcolhol impact suicide rates as compared to the general population?
the suicide rate for alcohol dependent people is 55 times higher than for the general population
True or False: Most people, 8 of 10, who eventually kill themselves warn of their intent.
True or False: For every 200 adolescents who have suicidal ideation, one commits suicide.
True or False: For the elderly, one of every three who has suicidal ideation will commit suicide.
What is meant by an Apgar Score?
used 1 and 5 minutes after birth to assess the newborn's activity(muscle tone), pulse, grimace (reflex irritability) and respiration. A score of 0, 1, or 2 points is assigned for each sign, and a total score of 7-10 is considered normal
Define cephalocaudally and proximodistally?
Growth proceeds cephalocaudally, from the head down, and proximodistally, from the center of the body to extremities.
Fill in the blank: Motor development proceeds from ____ to ____ motor skills?
gross to fine
Fill in the blank: The infant's ____ system develops more rapidly than the skeletal and other systems of the body.
True or False: It is not unusual for children ages 1-3 to have occasional nightmares and fears of darkness, loud noises and animals.
True, it is also normal for them to self-comfort using objects such as a blanket or toy to which they are attached.
What are three styles of temperment in infants?
easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
Describe fears in early childhood versus middle childhood.
early childhood (3-6 years): it is normal to have occasional night terrors and imaginary companions
middle childhood(6-12 years): fears tend to be focused on body images and competency; nightmares are less about imaginative figures and more about daily events
What happens to cognition in children ages 3-6?
cognitive abilities permit increasing ability to consider how their behavior affects others and the motivations behind others' behavior
What happens to social development around age 6?
(coincides with the development of the superego) children identify noticeably with the parents' values and desires; children experience self-satisfaction and increased self-esteem as they live up to these internalized standards; they may experience guilt and low self-esteem if they do not perform well. depression and deviant behaviors can be considered forms of giving up.
What is known as the chum period and at what ages does it occur?
ages 8-12, during which same sex friendships have particular importance, may serve as a prototype for later intimacy in life
What is gender cleavage and when does it occur?
in the elementary school years, girls and boys preferring to play with same-sex peers is normal
How is play different between girls and boys between the ages of 3-6?
the play of girls is likely to be in two-person groups, and to be affectionate and verbal. boys' play is likely to involve several children and be less affectionate, more physical, and less verbal
At what ages do the following stages of development occur: infancy, childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood?
infancy: birth to 2 years
childhood: 3-6 years
adolescence: 12-early 20s
early adulthood: early 20s - early 40s
middle adulthood: mid 40s - mid 60s
late adulthood: mid 60s and older
What are some of the tasks of adolescence?
coping with physical and sexual maturation, emotional preparation for becoming independent and leaving the family, becoming more peer centered, becoming capable of abstract thought and establishing identity. the ability to think about the future makes the cognitive process of like reflection possible. In middle adolescence, ages 14-17, boys catch up and surpass girls in growth. Experimentation with sexual behavior and roles is common.
What did Havighurst write about in 1951?
there are sensitve periods containing teachable moments during which individuals are poised to learn developmental skills
What is adolescent egocentrism?
adolescents experience a sort of egocentrism characterized by the belief that others (called the imaginary audience) are constantly preoccupied with them and the belief that their own expereinces and thoughts are unique
True or False: While some rebellion against parental authority on the the part of adolescents is normal, destructive rebellion is not experienced by most adolescents.
What are some gender specific concerns in adolescence?
some stuides show that as girls enter early adolescence, there is a drop in IQ scores, math and science grades, and they lose confidence, becoming more deferential and depressed. explanations include the fact that formal education emphasizes automony rather than the connectedness/collectivist orientation that girls value, and that social practices discourage female confidence and assertiveness. boys need positive role models and adult support to guide their developement. Gurian(1996) sees the lack of these as contributing to boys getting into trouble, not fitting into society, and not reaching their potential.
What are some of the tasks and transitions during early adulthood and what age range does it cover?
(early 20s - early 40s) period of highest intellectual development, important decisions surrounding relationships and career are often made at this time; women's and men's development is marked by similar tasks and milestones;
What are Marcia's four categories of identity formation for young adults?
Achievement: inner stability that corresponds to how others see one
Moratorium: exploration of different identities
Foreclosure: premature identity formation
Diffusion: little or no commitment to a set of beliefs or an identity
What are some of the tasks of middle adulthood?
(mid 40s -mid 60s) evaluating one's life path, evaluating the difference between goals and accomplishments, confronting ones limitations, and accepting one's mortality
What are some of the changes in middle adulthood and what age range does it cover?
(mid 40s- mid 60s) satisfaction with relationships and friendships tends to increase during middle adulthood. political and religious beliefs do not tend to change as much as do gender roles, lifestyles, and work orientation; speed and eye-hand coordination decrease in middle adulthood. creative productivity peaks, verbal intelligence continues to increase
Define midlife crisis as it relates to middle adulthood?
midlife crisis may be triggered by events such as divorce, children leaving home, and chronic life dissatisfaction. most adults DO NOT experience a dramatic midlife crisis
What is meant by the Sandwich Generation?
Increasing numbers of middle-aged adults find themselves part of the sandwich generation, simultaneously caring for their offspring and their aging parents. Daughters even if employed are more likely than sons to provide direct care and emotional support for their parents
how long one lives depends upon heredity, health, life style, personality characteristics including self esteem, and a history of work satisfaction. women tend to live longer than men
What are some of the changes during late adulthood and what age range does it cover?
(mid 60s-older) in late adulthood the senses decline, although in healthy older people this is only slightly noticeable; exercise improves both health and happiness; although sexual performance changes, especially in men, sexual activity need not be limited. cognitive performance declines, often because of physical limitations such as poor eyesight and hearing, but verbal skills are better at 65 than at 25; this classic aging pattern of intelligence show a higher verbal score on the WAIS than a performance score; those who adjust to retirement are healthy, have adequate incomes, are active, have better education, have an extended social network, and were generally satisfied with life before retiring