Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development

46 terms by ethansawyer 

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human development

multidisciplinary scientific study of how people change and how they stay the same

nature-nurture issue

issue concerning the manner in which genetic and environmental factors influence development

continuity-discontinuity issue

issue concerned with whether a developmental phenomenon follows either a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts

universal versus context-specific development issue

issue of whether there is one path of development or several

biological forces

all genetic and health-related factors that affect development

psychological forces

all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development

sociocultural forces

all interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors that influence development

life-cycle forces

differences in how the same event may affect people of different ages

biopsychosocial framework

view that integrates biological, psychological, sociocultural and life-cycle forces on development

theory

organized set of ideas that explains development

psychodynamic theory

theories in which human behavior is said to be guided by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious

epigenetic principle

view in Erikson's theory that each psychosocial stage has its own importance

operant conditioning

view of learning, proposed by B.F. skinner that emphasizes reward and punishment

reinforcement

consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour will be repeated in the future

punishment

applying an aversive stimulus (e.g. a time-out) or removing an attractive stimulus (e.g. watching t.v.)

imitation (observational learning)

learning that happens by watching those around us

social cognitive theory

view that thinking, as well as direct reinforcement and punishment, plays an important part in shaping behavior

self-efficacy

belief that one is capable of performing a certain task

information-processing theory

view that human cognition consists of mental hardware and software

ecological theory

view that human development cannot be separated from the environmental contexts in which development occurs

microsystem

according to Bronfenbrenner, the people and objects that are present in one's immediate environment

mesosystem

according to Bronfenbrenner, the interrelations between different microsystems

exosystem

according to Bronfenbrenner, social settings that influence one's development even though one does not experience them firsthand

macrosystem

according to Bronfenbrenner, the cultural and subcultural settings in which the microsystems, mesosystems, and exosystems are embedded

life-span perspective

view that development is determined by many biological, psychological, and social factors and that all parts of the life span are interrelated

selective optimization with compensation (SOC)

a model of successful adaptation to aging that emphasizes selection of goals, followed by efforts to maintain or enhance those chosen goals

life-course perspective

describes the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical context

systematic observation

involves watching people and carefully recording what they say or do

naturalistic observation

form of systematic observation in which people are observed as the behave spontaneously in some real-life situation

structured observation

setting created by a researcher that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interest so that it can be observed

self-reports

people's answers to questions about topics of interest

reliability

as applied to tests, when test scores are consistent from one testing time to another

validity

as applied to tests, the extent to which the test measures what is supposed to measure

populations

broad group of people that are the focus of research

sample

subset of population

qualitative study

a study in which researchers look in-depth at experiences and processes, usually of relatively small group of subjects about which very little is known

correlational study

investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world

correlation coefficient

statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relation between two variables

experiment

systematic way of manipulating factors that a researcher thinks cause a particular behavior

independent variable

factor that researchers manipulate in an experiment

dependent variable

behavior that is observed after other variables are manipulated

longitudinal study

research design in which a single cohort is studied over multiple measurements

cross-sectional study

research design in which people of different ages are compared at one point in time

cohort effects

differences between individuals that result from experiences and circumstances unique to a person's particular generation

sequential design

complex research design consisting of multiple cross sectional or longitudinal designs

cohort sequential design

combines longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches by studying several cohorts over time

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