This scientist concluded that serum antibodies are directed against the antigens that are missing from red cells
In what year was the AB blood group discovered
This tests red cells for the presence or absence of A or B antigens by adding anti-A and anti-B (separate tubes) and checking for agglutination after centrifugation
This tests plasma or serum for the presence or absence of anti-A or anti-B by adding reagent A₁ and B (separate tubes) and checking for agglutination after centrifugation
A blood group
In a forward grouping test, a result of A1+, B- would be interpreted as what
O blood group
In a forward grouping test, a result of A₁-, B- would be interpreted as what
B blood group
In a reverse grouping test, a result of A₁+, B- would be interpreted as what (opposite)
Retain a large amount of H antigen
Because there are no A or B gene specified transferases in group O persons to convert H chains to A or B, group O cells do what
A and B specific sugars
As the A and B transferases convert the H antigen to A and/or B antigens, the H determinant is masked by what
O, A2, A2B, B, A1, A1B
The correct order of the amount of H antigen on various ABO phenotypes, ranging from greatest to least is what
During the sequence of antigen formation, when an A gene is present, what antigen is formed
None, there will be no change in the H antigen structure
During the sequence of antigen formation, when an O gene is present, what antigen is formed
When two h genes (hh genotype) are inherited, what is the phenotype result
The type of linkage between the terminal carbohydrates
There are two types of H gene precursor chains, which are type 1 and type 2, which are differentiated by what
The type 1 and type 2 precursor chain (of H gene) found in body fluids are primarily attached to what
The type 2 precursor chain (of H gene) found on the red cells are primarily attached to what
How many A antigen sites are located on A₁ phenotype red cells
How many A antigen sites are located on A₂ phenotype red cells
How many B antigen sites are located on B phenotype red cells
How many H antigen sites are located on O phenotype red cells
A1, A2, B, O
What are the most prevalent antigens located on the surface of red cells (4)
Anti-A1 used to differentiate between A₁ (or A₁B) and A₂ antigens
The lectin extract from the seeds of Dolichos biflorus are the source of what
Presence of A₁ (or A₁B) antigen
A strong agglutination of patient cells with the addition of lectin anti-A1 indicates what
The lectin extract from the seeds of Ulex europaeus are the source of what
The lectin from Ulex europaeus binds with what sugar
sugar-N-acetylgalactosamine (A sugar)
The lectin from Dolichos biflorus binds with what sugar
ABO antibodies are typically what class
ABO antibodies are divided into natural and immune forms. What class is the naturally occurring form
ABO antibodies are divided into natural and immune forms. What class is the immune occurring form
IgM and IgG
What class(es) of antibody has the ability to bind complement and cause in vivo hemolysis
Plasma, saliva and colostrum
Where are ABO antibodies found within the body (IgM, IgG, and IgA)
The antibody anti-A,B phenotype is found in group O persons. What immunoglobulin class is it
IgG (Anti A,B)
Which antibody (and phenotype) most often crosses the placenta and causes Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, where child is group A or B
What antibody is produced by persons of the Bombay phenotype, has a wide thermal range of 4-37 C, and is always clinically significant
Classic Bombay phenotype
This describes the phenotype that is homozygous for sese alleles at the Se locus and do not produce enzyme to produce H, A, or B antigens in the secretions
Type O (Oh identifies this group)
What group do Bombay phenotypes type as
D or Rh positive
A person that inherits both RHD and RHCE genes from each parent would be what Rh type
D or Rh negative
A person that inherits only a single RHCE gene from each parent would be what Rh type
This is the inherited allele from one parent
This is the inherited haplotypes (alleles from both parents)
Weak D patients do not usually make _____ antibodies
Antibody to low incidence antigen
What are the reasons for a false positive Rh test
Hemolytic anemia with stomatocytes
People that suffer from Rh null syndrome (Rh null and Rh mod) experience a form of what
These individuals fail to demonstrate the presence of any Rh antigens, as a result of the absence or mutation to the RHAG gene
These individuals express markedly reduced amounts of Rh antigens as a result of modifications to the RHAG gene
Regarding the Hh blood group, the h gene is a ____ allele and produces ____ antigen
Of the different structures of the A, B, H antigens, linear structures have a _____ epitope
Of the different structures of the A, B, H antigens, branched structures have _________ epitopes
5 weeks after conception
How quickly are ABH antigens formed on red cells
Red cells of newborns _____ have branched ABH structures
2-4 years of age
Full development of the ABH antigens occurs at what age
Lectins must be ______ and used properly or else false results will occur
ABO antibodies are ______ ______ antibodies that are stimulated in the gut and environment
ABO antibodies are not detectable in the newborn until what age
Highest levels of ABO antibodies are found in children of what ages
ABO antibody titers in adults may range from what
People over what age may have reduced ABO antibody levels
People are expected to produce an _____ against the missing ______ on their red cells
IgM, occasionally IgG
What immunoglobulin class is anti-A₁ (subgroup of A)
If it reacts at 37 degrees C
Anti-A₁ is considered clinically insignificant when
A1, A1B, and occasionally B
Auto anti H may be present in the serum of what type persons
Auto anti-H usually reacts at 37 C, and is considered clinically ___ .
Allo anti-H is found in Bombay phenotypes and is considered clinically ________
Nucleotide substitutions or deletion at the genetic level
Of the alleles at the ABO locus, there are many other alleles that produce subgroups of A and B. These are a result of what
Diminished levels of A and B antigens on cells
A and B subgroup changes produce aberrant transferases that result in what
What is the only type of cell will react positively with Dolichos biflourus (anti-A₁)
What percent of the population that is group A, is A1 phenotype
What percentage of the population that is group A, is A2 phenotype
What converts both simple unbranched chains (H1) and highly branched chains (H₃ & H₄) into A antigen
Less than 1%
Subgroups of A, other than A₁ or A₂ which react weaker than other A phenotypes, comprise what percentage
Degree of reactivity
Presence of anti-A₁
Presence of A and H substances in saliva of secretors
Subgroups of A are characterized and categorized by what
Typically as the number of A antigen sites decrease, the number of H antigen sites will ______
This phenotype subgroup of A has 80,000 sites per red cell, gives a characteristic mixed field reaction with anti-A and occurs in about 1/1000 group A persons
Degree of reactivity with anti-B and anti-A,B
Presence of B & H substances in saliva of secretors
Subgroups of B are rare, and gives a weak or variable reaction with anti-B. They are characterized and categorized by what
anti-A and anti-A,B would cause transfusion reaction
In a case of a donor with subgroup A being mislabeled as O, then transfused into an O recipient, what would happen
1 in 7,600
Bombay phenotype (Oh) frequency is higher in India and occurs with an overall frequency of what
People with this phenotype lack H, A, and B antigens and make potent anti-A, anti-B, and anti-A,B
In Bombay phenotypes, the antibody screening of patient serum will react strongly to all group O cells and can demonstrate in vivo hemolysis. This is due to what
The antibody screen for a Bombay phenotype will yield a _____ auto control
Bombay phenotype can be confirmed by demonstrating the absence of the H antigen by using what
Phenotypes Ah, Bh, ABh, have a nonfunctional H gene but a normal Se gene, producing glycosyl transferase which produces H substance in the plasma
are referred to as what
The Se gene is what type of gene
The anti-H produced by para-bombay phenotypes is ____ than classic Bombay
adsorption and elution procedures
Para-Bombay patients may give a weak reaction to anti-A and anti-B reagents, but A and B antigens may be detected after what
Para-Bombay patients will react ____ with anti-H
As degrees of incompatibility go, what is the most severe to least severe? (3)
What phenotype makes anti-P
X linked recessive
Hemophilia A disease is what type of inheritance pattern?
Js^a antigen (makes anti-Js^a)
Js(a-b+) means the patient lacks what?
Weak D antigen testing is an example of what type of antiglobulin test?
Degree of reactivity with anti-A, -A₁, -A₁B
Subgroups of A are characterized and categorized by what?
What is the mode of inheritance for Kell antigens K and k?
Which I antibody reacts the strongest with cord blood?
phenotype the patient red cells for the corresponding antigen
What is the final step in the antibody identification process?
The addition of what reagent to the antibody id test may inhibit or prevent the detection of IgM antibodies?
Centrifugation affects what stage of hemagglutination?
An A₃ subgroup will demonstrate what type of reactivity with typing reagents?
Kp^a is a low or high incidence antigen?
Anti-P₁ is usually produced by what?
This phenotype has most but not all of the D proteins present.
M and N are allelic genes that code for the specific amino acid sequence what?
Ionic strength affects what stage of hemagglutination?
D deletion phenotypes will express elevated levels of what?
The U-phenotype results in the absence of what protein?
The activation of the classic complement pathway results in what complement protein being deposited on the red cell membrane?