Biology Midterm Vocab Ch1-2

66 terms by kconcann1

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Science

organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world; also, the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process

Observation

use of one or more of the senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste—to gather information

Data

evidence; information gathered from observations

Inference

logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience

Hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question

Theory

well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

***Fact

? No textbook definition...?

Spontaneous Generation

hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter

Controlled Experiment

a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same

Independant (manipulated) Variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable

Dependant (responding) Variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a dependent variable

Theory

well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

Biology

science that seeks to understand the living world

Cell

collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life

Sexual Reproduction

process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism

Asexual Reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

Metabolism

set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

Stimulus

a signal to which an organism responds

Homeostaisis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Evolution

change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

Metric System

decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10

King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk

Microscope

device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye

Compound Light Microscope

microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image

***(TEM ) Electron Microscope

microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen

***(SEM) Electron Microscope

microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen

Atom

basic unit of matter

Nucleus

the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities

***Proton

? No textbook definition...?

Electron

negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus

***Neutron

? No textbook definition...?

Element

substance consisting entirely of one type of atom

Ion

atom that has a positive or negative charge

Isotope

atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element

Molecule

smallest unit of most compounds

Compound

substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

Covelant Bond

[chemical bond- link that holds together atoms in compounds]
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms

Ionic Bond

[chemical bond- link that holds together atoms in compounds]
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

Van Der Waals Forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

Cohesion

attraction between molecules of the same substance

Adhesion

attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules

Mixture

material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined

Solution

mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed

Solute

substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution

Solvent

substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution

Suspension

mixture of water and nondissolved materials

Acid

[pH scale- measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14]
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
[buffer- weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH]

Base

[pH scale- measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14]
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution
[buffer- weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH]

Monomer

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

Polymer

large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

Carbohydrate

compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body

Monosaccharide

single sugar molecule

Polysaccharide

large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides

Lipid

macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

Nucleic Acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

Nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

RNA

single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose

DNA

nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose

Protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

Amino Acid

compound with an amino group (−NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (−COOH) on the other end

Chemical Reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

Reactant

element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction

Product

element or compound produced by a chemical reaction

Activation Energy

energy needed to get a reaction started

Catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

Enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

Subtrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

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