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EOC review guide for Chemistry

Chemistry

the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes

Hypothesis

an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested

What is the difference between weight and mass?

33

State the Law of Conservation of Mass/Energy.

44

Name 3 indicators that a chemical reaction has taken place.

55

_____________ reactions release energy. ____________ reactions absorb energy.

66

On the periodic table, __________ go across.

77

Families or __________ go down.

88

Metal, nonmetal, or metalloid? Potassium

99

Metal, nonmetal, or metalloid? Argot

10

Metal, nonmetal, or metalloid? Arsenic

11

Name the following groups and give one characteristic of each. Group 1 (IA)

12

Name the following groups and give one characteristic of each. Group 17 (VIIA)

13

Name the following groups and give one characteristic of each. Group 18 (VIIIA)

14

What is the density of a block of marble with a mass of 552g and a volume of 212cm3 (mL)?

15

20°C = _____ K

16

Specific head is :

17

What is a Joule?

18

Determine the specific heat of a material if a 12g sample absorbs 48J of heat as the temperature rises from 20°C to 40°C.

19

134.1 in scientific notation:

20

0.075 in scientific notation:

21

Name the scientist who discovered the atomic theory?

22

Name the scientist who said matter is composed of atoms that can't be subdivided:

23

Name the scientist who Discovered electrons using the cathode ray tube:

24

Name the scientist who Discovered the positively charged nucleus:

25

An Isotope is:

26

What is the mass number of C-14? How many neutrons does it have?

27

How many electrons does an atom or calcium contain?

28

How many protons does calcium contain?

29

How many electrons does an ion of calcium contain?

30

There are 6.022 x 1023 particles in one _______. This is ____________ number.

31

An atom that has higher energy than normal is said to be ____________.

32

The electron configuration of chlorine is _____________.
The ___________________ are the principle quantum numbers showing the energy levels. The ___________ are the orbitals.

33

How many electrons do noble gases have in their outer shell? ________ Halogens? ________

34

How many electrons do noble gases have in their outer shell?

35

How many electrons does oxygen have in its outer shell?

36

Who created the first periodic table?

37

How are the elements on the periodic table arranged?

38

The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is called ____________________ _________.

39

Which group requires the highest ionization energy? _________________ Lowest? ____________

40

A positive ion is a __________. A negative ion is an __________.

41

Ionic radii __________ as you go down a group and ___________ as you go across a period.

42

Electronegativity ____________ as you go down a group and ____________ as you go across a period.

43

__________ is the most electronegative element; __________ is the second most electronegative.

44

A __________ bond is when electrons are shared. It usually forms between a _______________ and a _______________.

45

Unequal sharing of electrons results in a __________ covalent bond.

46

Draw the Lewis dot structure for CH3I.

47

How many pairs of electrons are shared in a double bond?

48

Water has a ________ shape.

49

Methane has a _______________ shape.

50

Write the chemical formula for the compound formed from Cr3+ and F1- ions.

51

Write the chemical formula for iron (III) oxide.

52

The charge on a neutral compound is _____.

53

Name four types of chemical reactions.

54

The products of a combustion reaction are _____________ ______________ and _______________.

55

The reactant that controls the amount of product formed in a chemical reaction is the ______________ reactant.

56

What are the values for STP?

57

A _____________ measures atmospheric pressure. It contains the element _______________.

58

State Boyle's Law in words and write the equation.

59

State Charles' Law in words and write the equation.

60

What is the value of absolute zero on the Kelvin scale?
On the Celsius scale?

61

As the temperature of a gas increases, pressure ____________. Decreasing the volume of a gas causes the pressure to ______________.

62

Heterogeneous mixture, solution, suspension, or colloid? Raisen Bran

63

Heterogeneous mixture, solution, suspension, or colloid? Air

64

Heterogeneous mixture, solution, suspension, or colloid? Oil and Water

65

Heterogeneous mixture, solution, suspension, or colloid? Fog

66

Name three ways to increase the rate of dissolving?

67

Define "saturated solution."

68

Substances that are not soluble in each other are _______________.

69

Increasing the pressure on a gas will ________________ the solubility.

70

How many moles of NaOH are present in 1L of a 2M solution?

71

How do you calculate molarity?

72

____________ donate protons in solution.

73

Acids react with bases to produce ___________ and ____________. This is called a _________________ reaction.

74

What is a titration?

75

Acidity of a solution depends on:

76

If the [H3O+] is 1 x 10-5, the pH of the substance is ________.

77

If the [OH-] is 1 x 10-3, the pH of the substance is ________.

78

Write the formula for calculating pH.

79

What is the pH of a 0.35M solution of HCl?

80

What is the pH of a 0.89M solution of NaOH?

81

Acetic acid is found in ____________.

82

Below 7 on the pH scale is __________.

83

What acid is found in car batteries?

84

Why is acetic acid a poor conductor of electricity?

85

What is the difference among an element, compound, and a mixture?

86

What is sublimation?

the phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid

What element forms the most covalent bonds?

88

How many moles are contained in 5.54 x 1023 atoms of Cu?

89

What is the Law of Definite Composition?

90

Given 2Na + Cl2  2NaCl; how many liters of Cl2 will combine exactly with 39g of Na at STP?

91

During the electrolysis of aqueous NaCl, what is the base that would be found in solution?

92

What is the relationship between kinetic energy and temperature?

93

What is kinetics?

94

What does the rate of a reaction depend on?

95

How can a reaction rate be increased? 4 answers

96

Write the chemical equation for the synthesis of water.

97

Write the chemical equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

98

What is the freezing point and boiling point of water on each temperature scale?

99

Use a solubility curve to answer the next three questions. What is the solubility of KCl at 30°C?

100

Use a solubility curve to answer the next three questions. What type of solution is it if 25g KCl are dissolved in 100g water at 30°C?

101

Use a solubility curve to answer the next three questions. What type of solution is it if 55g KCl are dissolved in 200g water at 40°C?

102

The oxidation number of any free element is __________

103

Write the oxidation number of each element in the compound N2O5.

104

If 0.940g of a compound containing only magnesium and oxygen consists of 0.564g Mg, what is the compound's empirical formula?

105

Determine the percent composition of each element in C17H35COONa.

106

Write the chemical equation for the reaction between aluminum and iron (III) oxide to produce aluminum oxide and iron. How much iron would be produced from 52.5g of iron (III) oxide?

107

What mass of barium chloride will be needed to react completely with 113g of aluminum sulfate to produce barium sulfate and aluminum chloride?

108

In the reaction between calcium hydride and water, the theoretical yield of hydrogen gas from 75.0g calcium hydride is 7.18g. In running this reaction, the actual amount of hydrogen collected was 6.94g. What is the percent yield of this reaction?

109

If 35.0g of nitrogen react with 11.5g hydrogen in the synthesis of ammonia, which is the limiting reactant? How much ammonia is produced?

110

A 185mL sample of oxygen is collected over water at 30°C. The total pressure of the system is 8.9 kPa. What is the pressure of the gas? (PH2O at 30°C is 4.2kPa)

111

A balloon contains 1.5L of air at 175kPa and 25°C. If the balloon expands to 1.7L at 30.°C, what is the pressure of the air in the balloon?

112

A 2.25L sample of carbon dioxide is collected at 58°C and standard pressure. Determine the mass of the gas in the sample.

113

Calculate the molarity of a solution containing 19.6g phosphoric acid in 425 cm3(mL) of solution.

114

What is the mass percent of a solution containing 125g HNO3 in 425g water?

115

If 25.0 cm3(mL) of 0.400M HBr, is required to neutralize 55.0 cm3(mL) of KOH solution, what is the concentration of the KOH solution?

116

How many cm3(mL) of 0.125M HCl would be required to exactly neutralize 20.0 cm3(mL) of a 0.140M NaOH solution?

117

What is the oxidation number for each element in each substance?
H2SO4

118

What is the oxidation number for each element in each substance?
b. KOH

119

What is the oxidation number for each element in each substance?
c. Mg(NO3)2

120

What is the oxidation number for each element in each substance?
d. PO43

121

Which element is being reduced in the following reactions? Oxidized?
a. 2Na + S --> Na2S

122

Which element is being reduced in the following reactions? Oxidized?
C + H2O --> Co + H2

123

What is the pH of a solution that has an H+ concentration of 1.00 x 10-5M?

124

What is the result of a reaction between an alkali metal and water?

125

Which is more reactive with water- Na or K?

126

What is the result of a reaction between an acid and a metal?

127

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