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Honors Biology Midterm Exam. Not too much on biogeochemical cycles

population

a group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area

natural selection

a process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than organisms with other characteristics

theory of evolution

the change over time of populations into different forms from a common ancestor

common ancestor

the shared ancestor of new, different species

adaptation

an inherited characteristic that enhances us organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment

extinction

the irrevocable loss of species

ecology

the scientific study of how organisms interact with their environments

abiotic factor

a nonliving component of an ecosystem such as water, air or temperature

biotic factor

a living component of an environment

ecosystem

all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving factors with which they interact; a biological community and physical environment

niche

the status of an organism within its environment and community

symbiosis

a close association between organisms of two or more species

competition

the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

mutualism

an interspecific relationship in which both partners benefit

predation

an interaction between two species in which one species, the predator, eats the other, the pray

herbivory

consumption of plant parts or algae by an animal

parasitism

the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it

autotroph

an organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms

photosynthesis

the process by which plants, autotrophic protists, and some bacteria use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from carbon dioxide and water

heterotroph

an organism that cannot make its own food and must obtain them from consuming organisms or their organic products

herbivore

organism that obtains energy by eating only plants

carnivore

organism that obtains energy by eating animals

omnivore

organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals

food chain

a sequence of food transfers from producers through one to four levels of consumers in an ecosystem

food web

a network of interconnecting food chains

10% rule

only 10% of energy in each organism is taken in by the predator when eaten; other 90% is lost

respiration

carbon in the form of carbon dioxide gas being emitted by living organisms on the planet when they make energy

combustion

burning of gas, wood, oil, etc. by humans to make electrical energy which emits large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere

erosion

weather such as rain erodes phosphorus from rocks to be used by plants

proton

a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge; found in the nucleus of an atom

electron

a subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom

valence shell

The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons

shells

the orbits of electrons around the nucleus

molecule

a group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

ion

an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring a charge

covalent bond

an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons (valence electrons)

hydrophobic

"water-fearing"

hydrophilic

"water-loving"

hydrogen bond

a weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom is attracted to the partially negative atom

cohesion

the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds

adhesion

the attraction between different kinds of molecules

surface tension

a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid; water has a high surface tension because the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules

pH scale

a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic); pH = potential hydrogen, refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions

prokaryotic cell

a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in bacteria and archaea

eukaryotic cell

a type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; all organisms except bacteria and archaea have these

organelle

a membrane-enclosed cell structure with a specialized function within a cell

cytoplasm

everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles

cell wall

a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects cell and helps maintain its shape

chloroplast

an organelle found in plants and photosynthesis protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide

nucleus

1) an atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons 2) the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell

diffusion

the spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated

osmosis

the diffusion of water across a selective permeable barrier

hypertonic solution

in comparing two solutions, the one with the greater concentration of solutes; cells in such a solution will lose water to their surroundings

hypotonic solution

in comparing two solutions, the one with the lower concentration of solutes; cells in such a solution will take up water from their surroundings

isotonic solution

a solution having the same solute concentration as another solution, thus having no effect on passage of water in or out of the cell

photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

cellular respiration equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

oxidization

the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction

carbohydrate

molecules consisting of simple single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides), and other multiunit sugars (polysaccharides)

dehydration reaction

a chemical process in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule

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