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How close a measurement is to the true value

scientific notation

A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.

scientific method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

speed formula



size of the gap between two places


an increase in speed


speed in a given direction


the distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point

time graph

a graph that represents data that occur over a specific time


A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place.

transverse waves

a wave in which the particles of the medium move perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling

longitudinal waves

a wave in which the particles move parallel to the path of the wave


the tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place


the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time


the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave


the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration


the height of a wave's crest


electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation


the particular auditory effect produced by a given cause


the material through which a wave travels

doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

electromagnetic spectrum

the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves


the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation)


the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)

converging lens

lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus

diverging lens

a lens such that a parallel beam of light passing through it is caused to diverge or spread out

angle of incidence

the angle between an incoming wave and an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the new medium

endothermic reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat

exothermic reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat

balancing chemical equations

keep mass of products and reactants the same by adjusting coefficients as necessary


the particles of the nucleus that have no charge


Positively charged particles


negatively charged particles

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

binary compunds

one that is composed of two elements

covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

valence electons

one of the electrons farthest away from the nuclues atom


one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons


atom that has a positive or negative charge

energy forms

gravitational energy, kinetic energy, heat, elastic energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, radiant energy, nuclear energy, and mass energy

law of conservation

matter cannot be created or destroyed

kinetic energy

energy of motion

potential energy

stored energy


the transfer of energy or heat through a material

states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

phase changes

the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another. Melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and deposition are six common...

phase change diagram

gives the temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid or gas.
- the lines between each region is where the two phases exist in equilibrium.


any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt


any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water


a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

circular motion

Type of motion where velocity is constantly changing because direction is continuously changing

newton's laws of motion

Laws proposed by Isaac Newton that explain how force and motion work.

newton's universal law of gravitation

states that every object in the universe attracts every other object


shows magnitude and a direction of a force


the energy of the flow of electrons.

parallel circuit

a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit

series circuit

a circuit having its parts connected serially

open circuit

an incomplete electrical circuit in which no current flows

closed circuit

a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates

short circuit

a connection that allows current to take an unintended path

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