# physical science final exam review

### 63 terms by pmomber

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### precision

REFERS TO HOW CLOSE A SERIES OF MEASUREMENTS ARE TO ONE ANOTHER

### accuracy

How close a measurement is to the true value

### scientific notation

A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.

### scientific method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

S=D/T

### distance

size of the gap between two places

### acceleration

an increase in speed

### velocity

speed in a given direction

### displacement

the distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point

### time graph

a graph that represents data that occur over a specific time

### waves

A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place.

### transverse waves

a wave in which the particles of the medium move perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling

### longitudinal waves

a wave in which the particles move parallel to the path of the wave

### inertia

the tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place

### frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

### wavelength

the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave

### pitch

the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration

### amplitude

the height of a wave's crest

### light

electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation

### sound

the particular auditory effect produced by a given cause

### medium

the material through which a wave travels

### doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

### electromagnetic spectrum

the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves

### intensity

the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation)

### reflection

the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)

### converging lens

lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus

### diverging lens

a lens such that a parallel beam of light passing through it is caused to diverge or spread out

### angle of incidence

the angle between an incoming wave and an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the new medium

### endothermic reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat

### exothermic reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat

### balancing chemical equations

keep mass of products and reactants the same by adjusting coefficients as necessary

### neutrons

the particles of the nucleus that have no charge

### protons

Positively charged particles

### electrons

negatively charged particles

### atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

### atomic mass

Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

### binary compunds

one that is composed of two elements

### covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

### ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

### valence electons

one of the electrons farthest away from the nuclues atom

### isotope

one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons

### ion

atom that has a positive or negative charge

### energy forms

gravitational energy, kinetic energy, heat, elastic energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, radiant energy, nuclear energy, and mass energy

### law of conservation

matter cannot be created or destroyed

energy of motion

stored energy

### conduction

the transfer of energy or heat through a material

### states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

### phase changes

the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another. Melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and deposition are six common...

### phase change diagram

gives the temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid or gas.
- the lines between each region is where the two phases exist in equilibrium.

### acid

any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt

### base

any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

### pH

a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

### circular motion

Type of motion where velocity is constantly changing because direction is continuously changing

### newton's laws of motion

Laws proposed by Isaac Newton that explain how force and motion work.

### newton's universal law of gravitation

states that every object in the universe attracts every other object

### vectors

shows magnitude and a direction of a force

### electricty

the energy of the flow of electrons.

### parallel circuit

a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit

### series circuit

a circuit having its parts connected serially

### open circuit

an incomplete electrical circuit in which no current flows

### closed circuit

a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates

### short circuit

a connection that allows current to take an unintended path

Example: