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Stimulus

anything that triggers a behavior

response

an organism's reaction to a stimulus

innate behavior

behavior that is inborn, not acquired by learning

instinct

a response to a specific stimulus that does not require learning or practice

fixed action patterns

innate behavior that doesn't change as a result of experience

learned behavior

behavior that develops as a result of experience

imprinting

a type of learning that can occur only during a specific period early in life

habituation

type of learning that involves the loss of sensitivity to stimuli due to repeated exposure

conditioning

training that leads an animal to associate a response with a stimulus

trial-and-error learning

a series of responses that are tested and eliminated in a problem situation until a solution is found

animal societies

an organized population showing cooperative behavior

dominance hierarchies

a linear ranking of animals within the same species in which position dictates characteristic social behaviors

caste systems

usually found in insects, a highly organized society in which each member has a specific biologically determined task

pheromone

a chemical signal between members of the same species; acts much like hormones to influence physiology and behavior

visual, chemical, auditory, tactile

four types of communication

lifestyle

type of communication used depends on ___

insects, plants

___ and ___ use a lot of chemical communication

Niko Tinbergen

Studied innate fixed action patterns

Konrad Lorenz

Studied imprinting in graylag geese

Karl von Frisch

interpreted the honeybee communication

Ivan Pavlov

studied simple conditioning in dogs

B. F. Skinner

studied conditioning for rewards (trial and error)

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